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use of demonstration method in the teaching of Social Studies among Public Junior Secondary School Students in Enugu East Local Government Area

Project topic for Education department.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background To The Study

Education is indeed a major tool for making man truly human. Man is helped to behave and live as sound and rational being as a result of his exposure to education be it formal or informal. Man without education is likely to be barbaric, parochial, ignorant, backward, myopic and surrounded by diverse bottlenecks. Such an individual may not find it too easy to operate successfully as a functional member of a functioning society. This shows that education is indeed an indispensable tool needed for success in all ramifications. Education is an instrument per excellence for effecting the desired personal as well as society's development. It is a sure medium for the transformation of man from his animalistic nature to a "well-baked" social being.

Basically, education at all levels dwells on effective teaching and learning. Effective teaching and learning are indicators of quality teachers and quality teaching performance which are all determining factors of a well-designed educational system [41, 29]. Globally, teachers are noted as the most important resources in any school system and interactions between them and their students has been perceived to be a vital component in teaching and learning process. Interactions and classroom observations play a dominant role in teaching and learning processes in schools. The primary purpose of which is not only to assist teachers in improving their teaching skills, but also to evaluate how well their teaching performance is. As teachers are one of the most important mainstays of school system, the quality of their performance must continuously and systematically be evaluated especially in the area of teaching methods they use.

In this aspect, teaching methods comprise the principles and methods used by teachers to enable student learning. These strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of the learner. For a particular teaching method to be appropriate and efficient it has to be in relation with the characteristic of the learner and the type of learning it is supposed to bring about. Suggestions are there to design and selection of teaching methods must take into account not only the nature of the subject matter but also how students learn.[1] In today's school the trend is that it encourages much creativity. It is a known fact that human advancement comes through reasoning. This reasoning and original thought enhances creativity.

The approaches for teaching can be broadly classified into teacher centered and student centered. In a teacher-centered approach to learning, teachers are the main authority figure in this model. Students are viewed as "empty vessels" whose primary role is to passively receive information (via lectures and direct instruction) with an end goal of testing and assessment. It is the primary role of teachers to pass knowledge and information onto their students. In this model, teaching and assessment are viewed as two separate entities. Student learning is measured through objectively scored tests and assessments. In Student-Centered Approach to Learning, while teachers are the authority figure in this model, teachers and students play an equally active role in the learning process. The teacher's primary role is to coach and facilitate student learning and overall comprehension of material. Student learning is measured through both formal and informal forms of assessment, including group projects, student portfolios, and class participation. Teaching and assessments are connected; student learning is continuously measured during teacher instruction.[2] Commonly used teaching methods may include class participation, demonstration, recitation, memorization, or combinations of these.

The Social Studies curriculum over the past one decade has changed drastically both in content and methodology. The  recognition of  culture, differences  of  various ethnic groups has  directly influenced the content and approaches to Social Studies. The nature of Social Studies is that it is a study where the nature of man is its major central focus of attention. Social Studies therefore organizes its content around relevant knowledge, values  and skills  that constitute  the wide  sphere of man.  The subject has also  been seen  as  a prime discipline adopted to socialize our young and function as a means of promoting progress towards the major social education goals that have been identified for emphasis - civic duties or development of citizen participation  skills,  acquisition  of  desirable  attitudes and  values, disciplined  life  etc.

The scope of  Social Studies therefore, varies depending on the level one wants to cover. Its scope involves the" determination of what aspects of the various constituent contents would be most valuable for the realization of the objectives of Social Studies. It is therefore obvious that Social Studies is by its very nature a dynamic discipline which is wide and cannot be expected to have distinct boundaries. The scope certainly covers both immediate and distant environment in content and Methodology.

The exquisite and transfer  of knowledge  require  some  instructional  strategies.  The Social Studies teacher needs to acquire competence in his approaches to the teaching of Social Studies. These competences include content competence; competence in transmitting the content to the learner and competence in the subject area which demands appropriate use of teaching methods in teaching social studies and it is on this background the present study seeks to examine the Teachers and Students perception on the use of demonstration method in teaching Social Studies to students in Public Junior Secondary Schools in Enugu East Local Government Area.

Statement Of The Problem

           The persistent poor academic achievement of students in Social Studies in Public junior secondary schools has been a major concern to researchers. However studies have reveal that the use of effective instructional method in most public junior secondary schools to teach social studies will enhance students’ academic achievement. This demands that teachers teaching Social Studies would adopt instructional methods that would improve the academic achievement of students. To achieve this, various researchers have recommended that demonstration method be used in modern days teaching and learning process.

The interactive nature of the demonstration makes the aspect teaching approach a more active approach that produces the best student results. This observation is consistent with earlier claims of authors who studied the effect of demonstration and lecture methods on student academic performance. Demonstration method of teaching developed and sustained students' learning interests, which led to their better off achievement more especially in teaching social studies. In many researches, students' academic achievement has seen to be connected with the instructional techniques utilized in teaching and learning process. The problem here is that perceptions of both teachers and students on the use of demonstration method has not been fully disclosed in details and therefore, becomes an impediments in improving the teachers skills on the use of demonstration method. Looking at this, it becomes vital for the study to examine the Teachers’ and Students’ perceptions on the use of demonstration method in the teaching of Social Studies among Public Junior Secondary School Students in Enugu East Local Government Area

Purpose Of The Study

The general purpose of this study is to establish Teachers’ and Students’ perceptions on the use of demonstration method in the teaching of Social Studies among Public Junior Secondary School Students in Enugu East Local Government Area. Specifically, the study intends to:

(1). examine teachers’ perception on the use of demonstration method in the

       teaching of Social Studies in Public Junior Secondary School Students in

       Enugu East Local Government Area.

(2). evaluate students’ perception on the use of demonstration method in the

       teaching of Social Studies in Public Junior Secondary School Students in

       Enugu East Local Government Area.

(3). seek ways of improving teachers’ skill on the use of demonstration method in

      the teaching of Social Studies in Public Junior Secondary School Students in    

      Enugu East Local Government Area.

Significance Of The Study

          The findings of this study would be of great value to students, social studies, teachers, curriculum planners and researchers, school authorities, parents/guardian, government, employers of labour, society in general.

Social Studies Teachers: It will enlighten secondary school social studies teachers on the best approach or methods to adopt on educating and teaching the students and also provide teachers with alternative method to teaching of Social Studies.

Curriculum Planners: It would serve as an aid to curriculum planners and secondary school administrators as a whole on methods to adopt in educating students and the provision of adequate learning facilities for schools.

Researchers: Researchers who may embark upon a similar research work will find this research work beneficial to them since the information in this study will be of value to them.

School Authority: The findings of this study will be of help to School Authority in providing quality school administration/supervision on teachers’ teaching jobs and also provide vital decisions to classroom teachers.

Parents/Guardians: Parents/guardians stands to benefit from the study since the perceptions of both teachers and students on demonstration of method of teaching social studies will automatically improve teaching and learning of social studies and thereby improving their children academic performance.

Government: Vital education policies will be implemented to the improvement of teaching Social Studies by the government and this facilitate the use of demonstration method of teaching by a classroom teacher.

Employers of Labour: Employers of labour also stands to benefit from this study since the study will disclose the perceptions of teachers on demonstration method of teaching and the need for its use in every classroom instructions.

Society in General: Society in general will be enlightened on the use of demonstration method of teaching in teaching Social Studies and subsequently adopt it in our school system.

Scope Of The Study

          This scope of the study is to determine the Teachers’ and Students’ perceptions on the use of demonstration method in the teaching of Social Studies among Public Junior Secondary School Students in Enugu East Local Government Area with the content view to examine; teachers’ perception on the use of demonstration method in the teaching of Social Studies in Public Junior Secondary School Students, students’ perception on the use of demonstration method in the teaching of Social Studies in Public Junior Secondary School Students and seek ways of improving teachers’ skill on the use of demonstration method in the teaching of Social Studies in Public Junior Secondary School Students, all in Enugu East Local Government Area.

Enugu East is a Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the town of Nkwo Nike. It has an area of 383 km2 and a population of 279,089 at the 2006 census. The major towns in the local government include Amorji Nike, Ibagwa Nike, Umuchigbo and Aluolo. The postal code of the area is 400.Other neighboring local government area include Enugu North and Isi Uzo local government Area of Enugu State.

Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  • what is the teachers’ perception on the use of demonstration method in the teaching of Social Studies in Public Junior Secondary School Students in Enugu East Local Government Area?
  • What is students’ perception on the use of demonstration method in the teaching of Social Studies in Public Junior Secondary School Students in Enugu East Local Government Area?
  • What are ways of improving teachers’ skill on the use of demonstration method in the teaching of Social Studies in Public Junior Secondary School Students in Enugu East Local Government Area?

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