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Background of the Study
A teacher is an important figure in teaching and learning process, because he/she follows the curriculum so that throughout the year all the important knowledge is provided to the students. The main purpose of teaching at any level is to bring out a significant change in the learner (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2011). Most of the traditional methods were teacher-centered with no activity for the learners making them passive and therefore obtaining knowledge from the teacher without building their engagement level with the subject matter and the approach is least practical, more theoretical and memorizing (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2011). Students-centered approaches which are more effective are more encouraged because they embrace the concept of discovery learning (Brinley, 2015). Most teachers today apply the students-centered approach to promote interest, analytical research, critical thinking and enjoyment among students (Hesson & Shad, 2017).
Transferring knowledge requires teachers to use the appropriate method and pedagogy that best suits the learner and suit the objectives and desired outcomes. The poor academic performance by majority of the students in various subject areas is basically linked to the application of ineffective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners and therefore teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies (Adunola, 2011). Teaching is a profession of those who impart knowledge or skill, especially in an elementary or a secondary or in a university. According to Ayeni (2011), teaching can be defined as a systematic process of transmitting knowledge, attitudes and skills in accordance with professional principles. In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely apply teacher-centered method to impart knowledge to learners comparative to student-centered methods.
Until today, questions about effectiveness of teaching methods on students learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of education research. (Hightower et al., 2011). Adgoke in Ogide (2017) states that in our tertiary institutions, teachers use mainly the lecture method which is a teacher-centered method and the implication is that learners are passive and learning tends to be supertificial. Asikhia (2010) found that, qualifications of teachers and students’s environment factors do not influence students’ poor academic performance but teachers’ method of teaching influence poor academic performance. According to Adunola (2011), regular poor performance by majority students is fundamental linked to application of effective teaching methods by teachers to impact knowledge to learners. Ndirangu (2017) opined that, the choice of a particular method of teaching by the teacher is determined by the number of factors which includes the content to be taught, the objectives which the teacher plans to achieve, availability of teaching and learning resources and the ability and willingness of the teacher to improvise if conventional teaching aids are not available for the evaluation and follow-up activities to check individual learner differences. According to Ayemi (2011), teaching is a process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners so as to achieve specific outcomes. In order for the method used for teaching to be effective, Adunola (2011) maintains that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching strategies that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered.
The discussion method has been widely accepted and recommended by some educators as the good method of teaching in secondary schools (Phipps & Osborne, 2018). The discussion method is the method of teaching where the central and essential characteristics is interaction (Binkley and Tulloch, 2011). During discussion session students participate in the learning process by contributing problems, analyzing the factors associated with the problems, developing possible solutions to the problems, placing the solution(s) into action, and evaluating the results of the solution. Therefore, the study examines the impact of teaching methods on the academic performance of secondary schools students in Ezeagu Local Government Area of Enugu State.
Statement of Problem
Given the high value placed by government as the Nigerian senior secondary school curriculum, and the nature of the subject, the need to teach it effectively through an effective method is indisputable. A few of the problems affecting the teaching and learning of government are the meaningfulness of the content, the sustainability of the methods and probably, the teacher who handles both the content and method. There is scarcity of published works on the use of demonstration method in teaching particularly in Ezeagu Local Government Area of Enugu State where this study is carried out that is known to the researcher. The incidence of ineffective teaching of government in senior secondary school has resulted in poor achievement in examination. This necessitated the need for a more effective and result-oriented.
When a teacher teaches in the classroom depends to some degree upon hi approach to learning situations. However, students’ negative attitudes towards learning may be related to the method of instruction. Though teachers with high morale, motivation and a mastery of knowledge, learner difficulties and capacity to facilitate learning are important (Zadra, 2010), correct use of an appropriate teaching method is critical to successful teaching and learning. Knowledge of how teaching methods affect student’ learning may help educators to select methods that improve teaching quality, effectiveness, and accountability to learners and the public. It may also help them keep up with information technology, globalization and to avoid the status quo.
Organizing for effective teaching in vocational education is centered on certain factors such as what to teach, when to teach and how to teach. The teacher does not only teach the most relevant, meaningful and usefull materials for specific students, he must also recognize and adopt a good and well-researched method of teaching that guarantees better understanding and also stimulates and motivate the students. Several methods of instruction have been employed for students’ interest depending on the situation. Varying factors ranging from socio-economic background, intelligence, attitude of students to teaching methods employed by teachers have been attributed to this poor academic achievement. Teaching methods that encourages students centered activities for developing reasoning and process slides through scientific approach are conspicuously lacking.
For effective teaching to take place, the teacher must stimulate, encourage and maintain active participation of the students, through the selection of appropriate teaching methods. This would require a balance between what is taught and how it is taught. Thus, successful teaching does not depend only on the teachers’ mastery of the subject matter but also the teaching method employed. Hence, one of the most influential factors in teaching is the teacher’s method of teaching. Therefore, it is on this, the present study seeks to examine the impact of teaching methods on the academic performance of secondary schools students in Ezeagu Local Government Area of Enugu State.
Purpose of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the impact of teaching methods on the academic performance of secondary schools students in Ezeagu Local Government Area of Enugu State. Specifically, the study tends to examine:
The following questions are raised to guide the study:
Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be of benefit to the; teachers, students and curriculum planners.
Students: The study critically discusses extensively the effect of teaching methods on secondary school students, the consideration of academic performance of students. The findings will help the students who have lost hope is doing well in many subjects that all hope is not lost as they can still understand the subject by improvement in teaching methods used by their teachers.
Teachers: The teachers will benefit since the study will help them to understand the appropriate methods of teaching to be employed in carrying out their duties.
Curriculum Planners: The curriculum planners will get used information that will enable them improve in their planning of curriculum. The overall significance is that when all the stakeholders in this study benefit from the findings, learning will be very enjoyable and the students will perform better in both internal and external examination.
Scope of the Study
The study focused on the impact of teaching methods on the academic performance of secondary schools students in Ezeagu Local Government Area of Enugu State with the view to examine; the various teaching methods in teaching and learning of secondary schools, the instructional impact of teaching methods on the academic performance of secondary schools students and the factors influencing the teachers’ choice of teaching methods in secondary schools, all in Ezeagu Local Government Area
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