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Project topic for Mass Communication department.



Background of the Study

Advertising according to McCarthy (1984:48) is any paid, form of non-personal presentation of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor”. This is always done through a medium. The media includes direct media (catalogues, brochures, etc), Outdoor media (Billboard, Poster, etc), Print (Newspapers, Magazines, etc), Electronic Media (Radio and Television). Advertising is the most commonly used and the most noticeable of all the promo-tools. It gets the greatest number of firm’s target audience at the same time. 

Again, advertising is the dissemination of information about specific goods, service or idea from a sponsor, who must have chosen the best medium he thinks will deliver his message effectively to the target audience.

The origin of advertising would be traced back to the ancient times, about 400BC, when – earliest men did advertise, though, unconsciously. In those medieval times, advertising was crude, when measured by present day standards. However, the reason for the techniques then is the same now. To communicate information and idea to a target audience using persuasive message about the company’s and its product attributes, in order to change or influence consumers attitude.

Before the invention of the printing press by Johannes Coutenberg, in 1438, one of the significant developments of advertising people advertised mainly through the use of town criers and signs, but today, advertising witnessed a greater change.

The aim of this project or research work is to explore how advertising came to be a wonderful institution in our society and as an influencing factor in the buying behaviour of consumers, with references to the purchase of milk.

Thus, even from the start of civilization, man has felt the need to advertise. It has been part of firm’s relationship with the society. There have been development of techniques but the basic principles have remained primarily the same.

The World War II era, was marked by the growth of television advertisement, intense marketing competition and increased attempt to distinguish products by using strategies or other techniques. Advertising like so many other industries has undergone a period of great change, partly due to the rapid developments in business technology because of the growing feeling on its own part.

Nowadays, many people own television to keep abreast of every new development, unlike the mid 70s when it was owned by few rich individuals due to its high cost.

The effect of television advertisement on the buying habits of mothers, as discussed in this project, is of great importance to researchers. Due to the characteristic way television combines sound and pictures together, people now see, hear and get convinced about the product being advertised.

Due to the dynamic nature of man, some factors such as: internal individual influences and external environmental influences affect consumers behaviour.

The internal individual influences, are the consumer’s personal needs and motivations, while the external environmental influence are the consumer’s family social structure and culture. The ways these influencing factors are integrated within the consumer, determines the consumers’ behaviour towards a particular product advertisement.

In all, advertising has existed since the development of the exchange process and most of the early advertising was local either through hawkers or criers who chanted many advertising slogans, but today, it has been modernized.

Statement of the Research Problems

Advertisement is one of the determinants of the knowledge of goods by the consumers of any company. Without adequate knowledge of products, the consumers will not know the type of brand, price and where to buy particular goods. It might be said that a good advertisement is a life wire of any production company.

The advertisement method is also what motivates the buyers or consumers in response to their appeal to buy the manufacturers’ goods. Many firms do not know the kind of advertisement method to use in reaching the targeted consumers. This has effect on the purchase of their products. The consumers need a lot of conviction in order to buy a particular product, most especially if it has to do with a new product in the market. The advertisement slogan for each particular product of any company has big role to play in persuading the consumers in buying the particular goods in question.

Effective advertising has to do with adequate marketing strategy of any particular company such as Cadbury plc. The advertising strategy to be adopted by any company, should be determined after adequate market research has been done.

Ineffectiveness and high cost of advertisement media in Nigeria, also contributed to the problem of manufacturing company’s like Cadbury. Most of the newly produced goods, are not given wide coverage of advertisement in order to reach wider audience. The cost of placement as it affects what to be paid for per minute advertisement time is always high. In spite of all these problems, peak milk has continued to be advertised by its producers and its makes share has continued to increase. This study is meant to investigate the relationship between these advertisements and the purchase of peak milk by mothers in Enugu metropolis.

The problem inherent in this study are:-

Mothers find it difficult making a repeat purchase on products whose advertisement was not motivating.

Many firms sales turn-over, are sometimes low which could be caused by inadequate use of advertising slogan.

Sometimes, the abstract communication methods used in the television makes it difficult for mothers to comprehend the message being conveyed.

 Mothers belief that commercials in other communication media like the print and radio, has given rise to the controversy concerning the effectiveness of television as a media for advertisement.

Objective of the Study

The board objective of the study is to find out if television advertisements have any effect on the buying habits of mothers of peak milk by mothers in Enugu. Others include:-

  1. To ascertain the extent to which cultural beliefs, personal opinion and recommendations by others have influence persons urge in making choices.
  2. To see if television adverts help in gaining initial  attention and promote product identification.
  3. To find out whether mothers’ lack of product knowledge contributes to their non – consumption of it.
  4. To find out if mothers post – purchase action is stimulated by the influence of television advertising.

The various reactions to television advertisements have to be contained as well.

Significance of the Study

This research is carried out to show that television advertisement have more effect on mothers buying habits.

  1. It will help advertisers to make amendments where necessary and to know the best medium to place their advert.
  2. This work will portray the need for unique selling appeal and repetition of television messages.
  3. There is variation in the choice of means of advertising

This study also highlights on how television advertisements could be impressive and entertaining, which makes people to be interested in adverts made with real human beings that are already known, than with simple cartoons.

Research Questions

It is necessary that certain questions be used in this study, so that we can ascertain the effects of peak milk television advertisement on the purchasing habits of mothers.

Does repetition of television advertisements of peak milk cause mothers to buy peak milk?

Do mothers remember advertisement of peak milk on the television than in any other media?

Does television advertisement of a peak milk  bring about misleading comparisons?

What is the reaction of the public / mothers to Cadbury product, i.e. peak milk?

How do mothers see peak milk beverage television advertisement, and the advertisement of other beverages?

With the information gathered, the researcher will find out- truly if television advertisement affects mothers in making purchases.

Research Hypotheses

The following hypothetical statements are designed to help the researcher in making analysis.

Ho:       Repetition of television advertisement does not motivate mothers to purchase  peak milk.

Hi:       Repetition of television advertisement motivates mothers to purchase peak milk.

Ho:       Mothers do not remember products seen on the television than in any other media.

H2:       Mothers remember products seen on the television than in any other media.

Ho:       Television advertisement of peak milk does not bring about misleading comparisons of products.

H3:       Television advertisement of peak milk brings about misleading comparisons of products.

Definitions of Terms

For easy readability and understanding, the researcher decided to explain some terms as used in this project.

“Paid Form”: The advertiser purchases the media time or space for telling a story about the product.

“An Identified Sponsor”: The source of every advertising message is known. The person sending the message.

Effect: Refers to impact on any particular thing.

Advert: Abbreviation of advertisement, any paid for personal commercial on a product.

Communication: The transmission of information from a source to destination.

Social – structure: The organization of either the family or the society.

Culture: The way of life of people, which include their value system.


The following assumptions are made in the study:-

Advertising will have positive impact peak milk consumers.

Some take advertising as a selling tool, others says that advertising manipulates people psychologically to buy things they cannot afford.

It will contribute immensely in the promotion of the product, thereby encouraging consumption.

Again, it is assumed that advertising is a way by which producers differentiate their products.

Limitations of the Study

Due to some limitations that this research work has such as; time limitation, cost, variable and data, the results therefore cannot be very conclusive.

One of such limitation is that the researcher is not well conversant with the steps in carrying out a research work. This being the researcher’s first attempt at some scientific study of this nature.

Inadequate funding also was a constraint which made the researcher to make use of a small sample size of 400.

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