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1.1 Background to the study
The need for improve standard of leaving and enhanced economic development of the nation and particularly for individuals form the rational for educating the students in various vocational areas such as agriculture.Agricultural education is offerd sa a programme in colleges of education and in universities under faculty of education.
Agricultural education trains the recipients in the development of knowledge, skills and attitude relivant in boosting food production and to teach in schools. Egbuna(2010) described agricultural education as the type of education that trains learners in the field of production, processing and marketing of agricultural products.Osinem viewed agricultural education as a training programme given to learners in such areas as animal production,soil science,forestry,fishery,Earlier, Obibuaku in Aneke (2014) pointed out that the aim of agricultural science education is to expose individuals to good productivity. The object of agricultural education as highlited in Osinem (2008) include to acquire job seekers with employment and job oriented skills , application of basic agricultural competencies and related occupation to update instruction in agriculture and expand programmes about agriculture among others.
Agricultural education exposes learners in the general field of agriculture including its teaching method. It is expected that students of agricultural education must have studied the basic skills in animals and crop production.
Skills according to Hornby (2006) is a well established habit of doing things. Hanks(2009) explains skills as the ability that comes from knowledge practice and attitude to be able to do something well.
This study regards skills as ability to be proficient in cassava production resulting from exposure to theories and practice in the field of study, when one has acquired the required skills the individual could be self employed.
Self reliance was described by SA’AD(2010) as a situation were by a graduate does not wait for government /private employment but rather on his own and make income for improved standard of living. A self reliant individual can creat wealth for himself,employ other redundant individual and empower them through exposing them to relevant skills that will make them to become useful and contributing members of the society.
Agricultural education student ability could be enhanced in area such as cassava production. Cassava botanically known as (Manihot Specie) is aan origin Brazil South America. It is one of the most important crops of West Africa. It is a root crop found driving well in semi-arid areas and sometimes used to substitute when cereal and other stable food fail due to harsh weather like drought. Adegbola (2010) described cassava as a root crop producing latex and attain a height of 1.8-3.6 metres, depending on the variety. Cassava is an important crop produced in the world.
Forinstance Brazil produce about 24935 thousand tonnes of per year, Cassava is one of carbohydrate crops used mostly by average Nigerian citizen when processed in diverse form Okafor (2001). Adegbola (2010) explains that cassava was introduced by the early white Portuguese who came for slave trade.(Agbooca 1979,Akpomedaye 2007) holds that the portuguese introduced cassava into Nigeria in the 16th century, but now grown in all part of the country.
Cassava can tolerate drought,useful when other food crops fails,has sufficient calories more than other carbohydrates such as cocoa-yam,Rice,Maize and can be easily established because it is vegetatively multiplied ( Ezechukwu 2016). Cassavais useful in preparation of animal feed, it can be feed to animals such as Cattle,Sheep and Goat raw.the root can be left for a long time in the ground as a food reserve and hence provide for long periods as food reserve and provides assurance against famine. (Adetunji in Adiba 2016). Cassava can be roasted, boiled or processed into garri, tapioca, cassava flour for human consumption. In the industry, it can be used to manufacture starch and alcohol.Adegbola (2010)
It can grow in different climate but gives highest yields on rich,well-drained loamy soils with medium rainfall (Iwena 2014). The tuber tend to decay when the area is swampy.
The croptwo main varieties commonly grown in Nigeria are sweet cassava (Manihot Palmata) and bitter cassava (Manihaot utilisima) for the bitter cassava the juice (called hydrocyanic acid) must be extracted either through cooking/heat before it could be good for eating. These two varieties does well in Nkanu West because they have the climate and soil requirement needed for cassava production.
Currently Nigeria produces cassava more than any other country of the world.It is expected by the year 2005, Nigeria will be producing about 20 tonnes and about 60million tonnes by 2020 (IITA 2005 in Adiba 2016) as against 6,053 tonnes as noted by John (1996).The food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO in Ezechukwu 2016) emphasized on training of uman resources in cassava production to salvage the world from hunger. The only problem that hinder effective development in Mosiac-virus disease which reduces starch formation and some pest such as grasshoppers,rats,rodents,monkeys,baboons and bush pigs which has control.
It is believed that if agricultural students are exposed to skills in cassava production and better methods of controlling the pest and diseases. It will help them to become self-reliance and even employers of labour.
1.2 Statement of the problem.
The high rate of unemployment resulting to graduates roaming the street causing vice attitude is high in Enugu state University of science and technology in Nkanu west Local Government Area of Enugu State.
These graduate need to be exposed to viable areas that could make them to become self reliante. One of such area is cassava production as cumbersome because they still have at their back of theirmind unskilled methods used by illiterate farmers, because practicals and skills acquisitioin are not emphasized in schools during their peiod of study.If the agricultural education student who are willing to go into any viable areas that could make them self reliant are exposed to production and economic way of cassava production they will go
Into production on graduation and become contributing members of the society rather than wait unseen government job.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The main is to determine the skills required by agricultural education students in cassava production in Enugu State University of Science and Technology in Nkanu West Local Gvernment Area the study sought to;
1.4 Significance of the study.
The findings of this study if properly implemented would be beneficial to agricultural education students, institution, Government and general public.The findings of this study would help agricultural education students to develop inteest in farming cassava,therby seeing cassava production as a lucrative business to engage in.
It would be of immense benefit to institutions both in her curriculum planning and policy making that would guide agricultural education programme in the school.
The findings of this study would be of great benefit to the government because students of agriculyural education will not concerned with the issue of unemployment, they would creat job opportunity for others. The findings will increase maximum yield of cassava thereby provide food, eradicate poverty and slow economic development in Enugu State University of Science and Technology in Nkanu West Local Government and in Enugu state in general.
1.5 Scope and the limitation of the study
The study would cover skills required by agricultural education students in cassava production for self-reliance in Enugu state University of Science and Technology in Nkanu West Local Government Area.
The study will specifically deal with the planning, planting, and post planting, harvesting and marketing skills required by agricultural education students for self reliance.
1.6 Operational definition of terms
1.6.1 The terms were used in the study
Agriculture: This is the art and science of raising crops and animals.
It can also be described as the science or practice of farming, cultivating the ground, management of livestock, husbandary etc. Agriculture is the art or science of cultivating the ground, including the harvesting of crops and the rearing and management of livestock, tillage, husbandry, farming.
Skills: The familiar knowledge of any art or science, united with readiness and dexterity in execution or performance. Skill is the ability to perceive and perform. Skill is to be expert ie expertiness, aptitude’ example the skill of Agricultural farming like having skill of poultry production, fishery e.t.c.
Self-reliance: This simply means personnal independence, since reliance is a state of relying on something.Self-reliance means reliance on ones own powers or judgement. In this study it means relying on ones skills and potentialities in cassava production for a good standard of leaving or creat jobs for other jobless youths.
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