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PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF HIV AND AIDS: A CASE STUDY OF TARKA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF BENUE STATE


Project topic for Nursing Science department

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the Study
  • Globally, HIV/AIDS remains a canker worm that continues to negatively impact upon the lives of those infected and affected. The impact of HIV/AIDS continues to be felt with a lot of strain and stress and in some instances with heart breaking experiences. The disease is an important one and continues to occupy many international discussion agenda such as the popularly known Millennium Development Goals (MDGs now SDGs) and other United Nations related platforms.
  • Research indicates that more than two thirds of the populations of most Africans   reside in rural areas where information and health services are less available than in urban areas. This therefore means that these people are also less likely able to protect themselves from HIV/AIDS and even if they fall ill, they are also less likely to know how to get care.
  • In many sub-Saharan African countries evidence of the epidemic continues to show that rural areas are increasingly bearing the brunt edge of the epidemic than the largely urban areas. Poverty, information lacuna, paucity of the Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) to effectuate the campaign, ignorance and inadequate resources such as health services, education and communication services and materials are factors that compete to offer HIV/AIDS a stronger ground to proliferate (Kang’ethe, 2012). It is crucial that all the factors underpinning a poor campaign structure are unearthed or brought to the fore in order to attract international attention.
  • Perhaps good examples of paucity of resources to effectuate a compelling and a formidable HIV/AIDS campaign can be seen to be one of the facilitating factors increasing the epidemic in Tarka Local Government Area of Benue State, where rural areas are increasingly showing higher HIV/AIDS prevalence than the urban setting. Disappointingly, these rural areas also feel the financial pinch or burden because HIV infected urban dwellers of rural origin will likely return to their homes when they fall ill.
  • One of the most devastating aspects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic is the growing proportion of children the disease has orphaned as the scourge lasts unlike other diseases, HIV/AIDS generally kills not just one but both parent in most cases. Thus exposing the children left with numerous problems. Moreover, the stigmatization and the discrimination that people affected with HIV/AIDS often live with is passed onto their children, making their plight and light for survival much more difficult.
  • When parents fall sick and eventually die, the children’s lives often fall apart,   the hardship may even be eminent well before the children are orphaned. The entire family feels the socio-economic impact, the children particularly the girls, most often drop out of school to go to work to sustain the family and their needs, care for their parents, look after their siblings and put food on the table for the family members, (Akpe,   2006). 
  • The HIV/AIDS pandemic is said to be a ban on the development of a society thus, in Nigeria and Benue State in particular the scourge has affected the economic population who are supposed to contribute to the development of the society. The use of retroviral drugs given free and are made available by donor agencies and the Federal Government in order to curb the number of casualties of the disease is greatly ameliorating the situation.
  • It is against this background that assessing the preventions and control of HIV/AIDS is to be made with emphasis on Tarka Local Government Area of Benue State with the aim of finding a lasting solution to this ugly trend. 
  •  
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Indubitably, Nigeria and Benue State have been battling the state of high HIV/AIDS prevalence, to this end the government has instituted numerous and programmatic clauses to handle such developmental gaps such as HIV sero status, behavioral risk reduction, use of condoms by both male and females, needle exchange, treatment of curable sexually transmissible infections and use of systemic and topical antiretroviral medications by both HIV infected and uninfected person. The researcher contends that weaker campaign structures, inadequate social education, poor commitment to behavior change, weaker family structures, emphasis on use condom as opposed to abstinence could be the reasons weakening the chances of a successful campaign on the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in Tarka Local Government Area of Benue State.
  • Despite the applications and implementation of interventions by NGOs and other donor organization in Tarka LGA, the incidence and prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS remained very high, hence the need for this study to identify  ways of controlling and preventing HIV/AIDS spread in the local government.
  •   
  • Objectives of the Study
  • This study has the following objectives;
  • To study the role of government and NGOs in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in Tarka Local Government Area.
  • To ascertain the best method that will prevent HIV/AIDS in Tarka Local Government Area.
  • To examine the individual perception about HIV/AIDS in Tarka Local Government Area.
  • To examine the implication of HIV/AIDS on the economic development of Tarka Local Government Area.
  • To examine the role of health workers in the prevention of HIV/AIDS.
  • The Significance of the Study
  • This study is significant because it aims at bringing to lime light the methods of prevention and control of HIV/AIDS to the people of Tarka Local Government Area of Benue State.
  • It will possibly bring out modalities and strategies of strengthening and beefing up the quality and magnitude of an array of factors that will ensure a formidable HIV/AIDS campaign to stem down HIV/AIDS significantly. This study will also develop data for use by NGOs and government for prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in Tarka LGA.
  • The Scope and Limitation of the Study
  • Even though HIV/AIDS is a major challenge of Benue State, this study will be restricted to Tarka Local Government Area of Benue State.
  • The improper keeping of health records by health workers was a major limitation to the researcher in arriving at the total number of HIV/AIDS patient in Tarka Local Government Area.
  • Hence this is the first time the researcher is taking an independent research,the technical knowledge of research is a factor limiting in this study.
  • Research Hypothesis
  • H,: There is no awareness on the cause of HIV/AIDS

2 .H,: There is no awareness on  prevention measures put in place by government/NGOs in Tarka LGA.

3 H,: The population of Tarka LGA  are scared of going for medical test.

  • OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
  • AIDS- Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
  • HIV – Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • STDs – Sexually Transmitted Disease
  • ART – Antiretroviral Therapy
  • Acquired immunity, immunity that develops during a person’s lifetime there are two types active and passive immunity.
  • Adherence: Taking medications (or other treatment) exactly as instructed by a health care provider.
  • ADR – Adverse Drugs Reaction, any unintended, undesirable response to a drug taken at a normal does for normal use.
  • Antibiotic – Drug used to kill or suppress the growth of bacteria
  • ARV -  Antiretroviral  drug used to prevent a retrovirus, such as HIV.
  • Base Line – An initial measurement used as the basis for future comparison for people infected with HIV.
  • Bioavailability – A measure of the role and extent to which a drug is absorbed and becomes available at the site of drug action in the body.
  • Boosting – Using an antiretroviral (ARV) drug to increase the effectiveness of another ARV drug.
  • Coagulopath – A disease or condition that affects the bloods ability to coagulate.
  • CBO – Community Based Organizations
  • NGOs – Non Governmental Organizations
  • MDG – Millennium Development Goals
  • WHO – World Health Organization
  • Drug – Food interaction, a change in a drugs effect on the body when the drug in taken together with certain foods.
  • Epidemic – A widespread outbreak of a disease in a large number of individuals over a particular period of time either in a given area or among a specific group of people.
  • Epidemiology – The study of the distribution, causes and clinical characteristics of disease or health or health status in a population.
  • Higher Antiretroviral Therapy
  • HIV Progression -  the course of HIV infection
  • Immune System – A complex network of specialized less tissues and organs that recognize and defend the body from foreign substances primarily diseases-causing micro-organism. 
  • Immunity – Protection against disease caused by infections micro-organisms.
  • Incidence – The number of new cases of a condition, symptom, death, or injury that develops in a specific area during a specific home.
  • Incubation Period – The time between  infection with a pathogen and the outset of disease symptoms.
  • FMOH – Federal Ministry of Health
  • NEACA – National Expert Advisory Committee on AIDS.
  • NACA-National Action Committee on AIDS
  • PLWHA-People living with HIV/AIDS
  • LACA-Local Action Committee on AIDS
  • BENSACA-Benue State AIDS Control Agency

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