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INFLUENCE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY{ICT} TO BROADCASTING IN NIGERIA. (A STUDY OF ENUGU STATE BROADCASTING SERVICE{ESBS} AND NIGERIA TELEVISION AUTHORTY{NTA} ENUGU STATE)


Project topic for Mass Communication department

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study

As the world grows complex and sophisticated, information and communication (ICTs) are invented. The invention of information and communication (ICTs) has always been a catalyst for change in the broadcast industry. This change can be attributed to the introduction of ICTs in broadcasting occasioned by giant technological advancement. The advancement in media technologies has cut the barrier of time and space in our broadcast industry; it has also made communication easier and more democratic and the creation and distribution of media content easier. No wonder Defleur and Dennis (1991: 229) observed that: Technology has always been a metaphor for change in media industry. As far back as Gutenberg, it was technology: the movable type that spurred change. Later, fast printing presses, the telegraph, zinc engraving, modern photography, radio, television, fiber optics, and other technologies heralded new developments for media and their audience. The emergence of new media technologies and the imaginative applications of these new technologies and older technologies make it possible for the society to be more informed. It also makes information processing, delivery, storage and retrieval easier. As the world strives towards globalization, the new media technologies are believed to be a great facilitator of this move.

Nsude (2004:102) believes that the human family is disunited and fragmented into nations and cultures with conflicting interest and perceptions and there is need therefore for a more united world. Throughout history, new media and new forms of media delivery have continually appeared. Today we have witnessed the arrival of a global community brought about by advances in communication technologies. This has invariably brought to fore the concept of globalization. Marshal McLuhan, a Canadian Scholar, who foresaw the effect of Technological change in communication, said that the human society has been restored to a „global village‟. The concept of global village assumes that “communication technology” now work like the nervous system in the human family. Messages could be sent and received with surprising speed. This therefore has shrunk the world into a smaller place not because of a contraction in landmass, but due to the marvels in communication technologies. Baran (2009:314) citing McLuhan states: The media permit us to experience the world with a scope and depth otherwise impossible. Media, then, are extension of our bodies. Just as clothes are an extension of our skin, permitting us to wander farther from our warm caves into the cold world; just as the automobile is an extension of our feet, enabling us to travel farther we could ever walk; television extends our vision and hearing, and computers extend our central nervous system. With television we can see and hear around the world, beyond the galaxy, into the future, and into the past. Computers process, sort, categorize, reconfigure, and clarify.

 In view of the above submission, it is pertinent for the broadcast media professionals to be acquainted and able to manipulate these technologies and also have good knowledge of the workings of these new technologies employed in broadcasting. This implies that, the media professionals should know the means of acquiring them, installing and maintaining these equipment and the ability to overcome the challenges posed by these innovations as a catalyst for change and as the pivot around which great competition revolve in the broadcast industry. To authenticate the above assertion Mbam (2007:64) affirms that information and communication technology (ICT) is applied in communication profession because media practitioners need organized (systematic or formalized) way of handling information for proper planning, proper decision making, and proper management in organization and individual activities which information are meant for. It is unarguably becoming a statement of fact that the success of any organization; institution, business, or individual venture depends largely on the level of communication effectiveness and efficiency at its disposal. Every business or organization, regardless of its size or purpose, is concerned with processing of facts (or data) about its operations in order to provide accurate information to its management. This function could be carried out faster through the use of modern communication channels like internet, television, motion picture etc, which disseminate information to all nooks and crannies of the populace. These modern communication devices go a long way to alleviate the numerous human efforts being wasted in our previous (un–organized or non–systematic) manner of running our organizations or collecting our information (Mbam: 2002). The needs in today’s organizational and institutional pattern to save time cost and minimize the process of organizing and coordinating our big activities is the core function of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs).

However, the story is different in the Nigerian broadcast industry. Even in the face of technological advancement in other countries and the applications of these new technologies in the broadcast media, the acquisition and use in Nigeria is rather slow. Nigerian broadcasters are yet to catch up with the trend in modern technologies, although communication experts foresaw long ago that more private broadcast media will spring up in Nigeria by 21st century, giving communication its place and priority in the country. The use of new information technologies in Nigeria is a recent phenomenon, as the media are doing their best to catch up with the trend of things in the world in terms of the acquisition and use of these new technologies. These technologies are capable of creating sophistication in the method of broadcasting and also improve the output and quality of programmes. According to Amuchie (2001:48), in a world that has become a global village where information travels faster than the speed of light, any country that stand aloof, whether out of ignorance or lack of appreciation of this necessity will certainly contend with backwardness. The Nigerian broadcast media cannot afford to stand aloof where others are making progress, thus, to fight the shackles of backwardness successfully, there is need to embrace the use of these technologies in order to improve the quality of the programmes and broadcast. The improvement of the broadcast media all over the world is greatly due to the application of the right technologies and communication system within their broadcast network Malcom (2001: 217). In view of the foregoing, a problem arises as to how to gauge the influence of these new technologies on broadcast content, message delivery, information reach and quality. Given the startling development of new media technologies and the expectation that proper application of these technologies would improve broadcasting in Nigeria this study will therefore, examine the Influence of new media technologies on broadcasting. A study of television stations in Enugu metropolis. These television stations in focus include Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) Enugu, Enugu State Broadcasting Service (ESBS) Enugu.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is saddening that despite the startling developments in media technology, TV and radio broadcasting in Nigeria especially in Enugu state is yet to assimilate the new innovation or imbibe the realities of modern broadcasting. The advancement in media technology can only be said to be achieving the desired ends when they readily and continuously influence positively the operations of the Nigerian broadcast media. What this translates to, is that the success or otherwise of all these technologies can only be measured in terms of the extent to which they bring improvement on the accuracy, speed and transfer of message and redefine the concept of broadcasting to an enviable height. The use of information and communication (ICTs) can only be said to be effective when the media professionals and audience benefit from the technologies through improved quality of programmes. The problem still remains as to how to assess the extent to which the information and communication (ICTs) have influenced the televisions Stations in Enugu metropolis. (NTA Enugu, Enugu state broadcasting service).   Are the public broadcast stations more abreast of the influence of the information and communication technologies{ICT}or the private broadcast station more aware of this influence? How have the information and communication technologies{ICT} influenced the members of staff? How proficient are the members of staff in the use of these new media technologies? What are the challenges posed by these technologies to the members of staff, These research is therefore set basically to answer this question; what influences have Information And Communication Technologies played in broadcasting, with regard to NTA Enugu, ESBS.

1.3 Objectives of Study

The objectives of this study include the following;

(i) To determine the the level of awareness of information and communication technologies{ICT} ni broadcasting in Enugu state

(ii) To examine the level of knowledge of staffin the use information and communication technologies{ICT} in broadcast station in Enugu state.

(iii) To determine the extent to which new media technologies have been incorporated into the stations operations.

(iv) To determine the challenges posed by information and communication technologies{ICT}to broadcast operations.

1.4 Research Questions

To realize the objectives of this study, the following research questions were asked;

(i) What is the level of awareness of information and communication technologies {ICT} to broadcasting in Enugu state?

(ii) What is the level of knowledge of staff in the use information and communication technologies{ICT} in broadcast station in Enugu state?

(iii) To what extent to which information and communication technologies{ICT}have been incorporated into the stations operations?

(iv) What is the challenges posed by information and communication technologies{ICT}to broadcast operations.

1.4 Significance of Study

This study will be beneficial in the following ways: The findings will help to reposition the thought pattern and help media professionals to get acquainted with the new technologies to help produce quality programmes. The findings of this research will add to the existing literatures and act as a handy material for students who might have interest in researching further on the topic. The study shows the extent to which broadcast media have incorporated the use of modern technologies in their operations. The findings from this research ascertained how favourable or unfavourable these information and communication technologies{ICT} are to the broadcast media.

1.5       Statement of Hypotheses

Hoi:      Information And Communication Technologieshave not contributed to broadcasting stations in Nigeria

Hi:        Information And Communication Technologiescontribute to broadcasting stations in Nigeria

Hoi:      There are no enough sophisticated ICTs in Nigerian broadcasting stations

Hii:      There are   enough sophisticated ICTs in Nigerian broadcasting stations

1.7 Scope of the Study

The interest of this study lied in the influence of information and communication technologies{ICT} in broadcasting with regard to television stations in Enugu metropolis; which include Enugu state broadcasting service and Nigeria Television Authority. The work does not study the generality of influence on all the equipment used in broadcasting; rather it restricts itself to only new media (Internet), satellite technology, cable system, computer, digital cameras, fibre optic, teletext and digital television employed in broadcasting. Analogue equipment and other equipment not mentioned above are not within the scope of this study.

1.8 Definitions of Terms

For a proper understanding of this work, key terms used are defined based on their conceptual relevance to this study.

Community Media: In attempting a definition of community media, it is perhaps germane to briefly explain the mass media. According to Raufu (2003,P.809) “Mass media are the modern means of  giving information to a large number of people”. The concept of community media might be clearer if the idea of community is first briefly explained.

Community Media: would prefer to publications or broadcast outfits which serve the needs of those who make up a community.

Journalist: A journalist collects and disseminates information about current events, people, trends and issues. His or her work acknowledge as journalism.

Reporters: Reporters are one type of Journalist, they create report as a profession for broadcast or publication in mass media such as newspapers, television, radio, magazine, documentary film, and the internet.

Mass Media: Mass media refers collectively to all media technologies including the internet, television, Newspapers, and radio are used for mass communications, and to the organizations which control the use of technologies.

Printing Press: A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an linked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the link.

Development Communication: For any medium to influence the community it must pass across messages that have the potential to impact on community, hence the essence of development communication. But as Moemeke (1989) has rightly observed, development communication is not merely a matter of transmitting information about how things can be done better by using available facilities; it is much more than the exchange of problem-solving information; it is also the generation of psychic mobility or empathy, raising aspiration, teaching of new skills, and encouragement of local participation in development activities.

Radio: This is the process of sending and receiving message through the air by electromagnetic waves. However, it can be further be defined as the activity or industry of broadcasting programmes for the people to listen to. 


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