Education is a major tool for individual empowerment and national development. A national educational system is vital because it produces the personnel that are required to function in various facets of national life and development process. Gray (2011), notes that -the goals of wealth creation, employment generation, poverty reduction and value reorientation can be effectively pursued, attained and sustained only through an efficient, relevant and functional education system.‖ Education has been accorded a high rating in Nigeria, and the demand for education is popular because of the desire of members of the society to give their children a better opportunity in life. The demand for education has become explosive and one which no government can afford to ignore. Education in Nigeria has reached a cross-road that demand a change in direction, a change in our understanding and acceptance of what educational standard and quality are, the high demand of education in Nigeria give rise it continued expansion
Educational adjustment of the child is conditioned by the nature and demands of society to which the child belongs. The most distinctive feature of modern society is its science based technology. Thus, the Nigerian National Policy on Education (2013) states that the government recognizes education as an instrument per excellence for effecting national development.
Education is a fundamental human right enshrined by United Nations and the need to provide quality education among youth and the need to provide them with necessary skills for increased economic productivity has been of great concern worldwide (Peter, 2005).
Taneja (2004) opines that education is the deliberate and systematic influence exerted by the matured person on the immature through instruction and discipline. The essential elements in the education process are a creative mind, a well-integrated self, useful purpose and experiences related to the interest, need and abilities of the individual.
Teaching involves a teacher trying to teach someone something somewhere. Teaching is one of the oldest and probably most respected professions playing an important role in the preservation of societies, teaching is a series of observables action which can be reviewed, enhanced, changed, and repeated for effective learning to take place. Teaching is a form of public service which requires of teacher‘s expert knowledge and skills, acquired and maintained through rigorous study -UNESCO and the ILO cited by Baikie (2002). This definition of the teaching-learning process shows that the act of teaching is full of activities that a teacher must engage in for successful implementation of teaching learning process.
Eisner (2004), argues that teaching is much like the work of the artist than the scientist. Teaching involves complex judgment that unfolds during the course of instruction. Teachers must deal creatively with the students. Furthermore, the most important goals of teaching are those events (e.g. critical thinking, analytical reasoning and /oral communication) that occur during the process. The outcomes are often embedded in the learning process itself.
The increased awareness of the role of teachers makes the development of teacher education programme an important component of the education industry (UNESCO, 2005). The quality of teaching is a crucial factor in promoting effective learning in schools. Effective teaching requires individuals who are academically able and care about the wellbeing of children. In every instructional setting; a teacher may be confronted by students with varied learning abilities, and topics that require many hours of preparation, and a limited amount of resources.
The teacher‘s role in the learning process is changing as new technologies are introduced into the classroom (Smith, 1999).
Sherlock, (2000) states that an effective teacher must possess the skills of a detective in an instruction setting, to overcome such obstacles, a teacher must use observation, knowledge and skills to create instructional treatment that goes beyond simple memorization of facts to create new level of understanding within the learners.‖
The increase in the percentage of what is learned and remembered is greatly influenced by the judicious use of instructional materials to task the various sense organs of the learners. Instructional material is one of the primary tools in the hands of the teacher for effective teaching in the class room. Its importance is demonstrated in the popular adage that when we hear alone in the class, we forget much of what we heard, while when we hear and see we forget much less and recognize better, but when ever we hear, see and do, the rate of forgetting is significantly lowered (Sunday Jacob, 2007:197). Ekpo (2006), advised that the modern day teachers should not attempt teaching without a careful selection and use of instructional materials. Olaitan and Agusiobo (2008) considered instructional materials as any device pieces of equipment, graphics representation and illustration designed and used to help learners learn meaningfully.
Students learn better when their thoughts and expectations interact with materials, ideas, and people, Such interactions give learners meaningful developmental learning experience. Instructional materials give teacher/students the pride of using their talents, allows a teacher to reproduce his potentials, in concrete form and increase teacher‘s knowledge of the subject matter. The use of instructional material in teaching could extend the scope and power of instruction. It could also help to bridge the gap between the teacher and students in terms of understanding different concepts in the lesson, thereby making learning more immediate and more relevant.
It emphasizes the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. It fosters the development of spontaneity, self-reliance, flexibility of mind, critical thinking, tolerance, initiative, ability to solve problems creatively and a sense of purpose and direction in the student.
Instructional materials add element of reality by providing concrete example to learning. Many authors have written on the use of instructional materials both in teaching social studies and other related subjects in order to enhance teaching for desired social and behavioural change. They all pointed out the need for development of skills by teachers so that they could be able to use a wide variety of materials in teaching sufficiently well. Harts (2000) points out that, instructional materials are used in teaching and learning process to support various activities among students.‘ Students learn effectively when such learning experiences and activities are illustrated with instructional materials.
The information explosion has forged a new dynamic role for the teacher to engage fully in creative thinking. Creating a learning environment where constructing and sharing knowledge, skills and understanding is valued and a goal that every teacher must strive to reach. Therefore, the use of appropriate instructional materials is a ticket to success in the classroom. Today, the world is changing rapidly; teachers must venture on their own creative thinking in building a life-long mastery with technology. Teachers must develop their potential abilities to defeat the accompanying challenges. The need for new techniques in teaching and learning will continue to grow stronger and faster.
Educational materials in teaching according to Babatunde (2005) helps to increase learners motivation, recall earlier learning, activate learner‘s response, give speedy feedback and encourage appropriate practice. Educational resource materials store lessons that can be marched to the learner‘s characteristics, contents, objectives, instructional approach and evaluation techniques as well as principles of learning. Instructional materials are essential aid to effective instruction but are not commonly found in contemporary schools in Nigeria due to;
i High cost of production; ii Faulty development of curriculum rushed coverage of syllabus; and iii Teachers reluctance to spend their time, effort and money on improvisation.
In view of the above, this study was embarked upon in order to stimulate teachers to search for creative ways to beat technological imitations in order to challenge student‘s mind. This can be done by encouraging and supplying teachers the necessary materials needed to improvise.
The desire to carry out this research was due to the problem of poor examination performance by the Nsukka secondary schools students, in Nsukka Education Zone. This poor examination performance has been recorded for some years by the State Education Management Board. It was observed that, some concepts in secondary school social studies curriculum are difficult for students to learn. There is no doubt that children performance can be substantially improved through the application of simple practice and the use of instructional materials in teaching and learning situation. Therefore, the problem of this study hinges on the determination of the extent to which the use of instructional materials enhances students‟ performance in Social Studies at Nsukka Education Zone.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of instructional resources on the academic performance of students in secondary schools in Nsukka Education Zone
The objectives of this research are to:
Determine the effects of instructional materials on the academic performance of students taught with instructional materials to those taught without instructional materials in Nsukka secondary schools in Enugu State.
Compare the academic performance of boys and girls using instructional materials in Nsukka secondary schools in Enugu State.
Determine the mean performance scores of students in Nsukka secondary schools in Enugu State without the use of instructional materials.
Explore the difference between treatment effects for the students using instructional materials in Nsukka secondary schools in Enugu State.
The following research questions were formulated in order to obtain answer to the problems under investigation:
To what extent are the effects of instructional materials on the academic performance of students as compared to those taught without instructional materials in Nsukka secondary schools in Enugu State?
What are the comparative mean performance scores of boys and girls using instructional materials in Nsukka secondary schools in Enugu State?
What is the mean performance scores of students in Nsukka secondary schools in Enugu State without the use of instructional materials?
What effect does the treatment have on the students using instructional materials in Nsukka secondary schools in Enugu State?
The following null hypotheses were formulated for this study:
Ho1 There is no significant difference in the academic performance of students taught using visual materials and those taught without visual materials in Nsukka secondary schools in Enugu State.
Ho2 There is no significant difference in the mean performance scores of boys and girls taught using audio materials in Nsukka secondary schools in Enugu State.
Ho3 There is no significant difference in the mean performance scores of students in Nsukka secondary schools in Enugu State without the use of hardware materials.
Ho4 There is no significant difference in the treatment effect for the students taught using non-projected materials in Nsukka secondary schools in Enugu State.
The following basic assumptions were formulated to guide the conduct of this study:
All teachers in Nsukka secondary schools in Enugu State, Nigeria can produce locally made instructional materials in teaching studies.
There is availability of ready made instructional materials in all Nsukka secondary schools for teaching in Nsukka Education zone Enugu State, Nigeria.
That government makes fund available for teachers‘ improvisation of instructional
material in Nsukka secondary schools in Enugu State, Nigeria
That teachers have the needed basic skills to produce instructional materials for teaching Social studies in Nsukka secondary schools in Enugu State, Nigeria.
The study is to determine the effects of impact instructional resources on the academic performance of Nsukka Secondary School students in Nsukka Education zone Enugu state.
An in-depth research of all the secondary schools in the state cannot be conducted due to financial constraints, instead a few secondary schools students were selected from Nsukka, Educational Zones for the study where students responded to the test instrument after the eight weeks of classroom teaching-experiment.
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