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1.1 Background of the Study
The history of organizational citizenship behaviour could be traced back to 1938 when organizations were first seen as cooperative systems. Belief in the ideals of the organization was indispensable to cooperation and to the spontaneous contributions employees made to other employees and to the organization itself. Bernard (2014) opines that material and monetary compensation were not sufficient to motivate workers to contribute enough for the sustained success of an organization. Barnard (2014) wrote that willingness to cooperate is the antecedent of spontaneous contributions and cooperation whether positive or negative, is the expression of the net satisfactions or dissatisfactions experienced or anticipated through alternative opportunities.
What constitutes a good employee in a 21st century workplace? It is important to have good relationships among co-workers. Being helpful and supportive of colleagues in a way that benefits the organization and working towards the organisation’s goals is likely to improve the performance of employees. Organizational citizenship behaviour is referred to as a set of discretionary workplace behaviours that exceed one’s basic job requirements. They are often described as behaviours that go beyond the call of duty. Research on organizational citizenship behaviour has been extensive since its introduction nearly twenty years back (Bateman & Organ, 2011). The vast majority of organizational citizenship behaviour research has focused on the effects of organizational citizenship behaviour on individuals and organizational performance. There is a consensus in this particular field that organizational citizenship behaviour addresses silent behaviours for organizational enterprises (Barbuto, 2013). Successful organizations have employees who go beyond their formal job responsibilities and freely give off their time and energy to succeed at the assigned job. Such altruism is neither prescribed nor required; yet it contributes to the smooth functioning of the organization. Organizations could not survive or prosper without their members behaving as good citizens by engaging in all sorts of positive behaviours. Because of the importance of good citizenship for organizations, understanding the nature and sources of organizational citizenship behaviour has long been a high priority for organizational scholars (Organ, 2014) and remains so. Organ (2014) further elaborated that organizational citizenship behaviour can maximize the efficiency and productivity of both the employee and the organization that ultimately contribute to the effective functioning of an organization.
Organizational citizenship behaviour has been shown to have a positive impact on employee performance and wellbeing, and this in turn has noticeable flow-on effects on the organisation. There is evidence for the widely-held belief that satisfied workers perform better, but this is correlational, not causal. However, certain types of performance – primarily those related to citizenship behaviour – will be affected by job satisfaction. Think of workers who are cooperative with their superiors and colleagues, willing to make compromises and sacrifices and are ‘easier to work with’, workers who ‘help out with the extra little things’ without complaining (or even offering to do so without being asked) – these behaviours are all encompassed within organizational citizenship behaviour. The effects on employee performance are threefold. Firstly, workers who engage in organizational citizenship behaviour tend to receive better performance ratings by their managers (Podsakoff, 2009). This could be because employees who engage in organizational citizenship behaviour are simply liked more and perceived more favourably (this has become known as the ‘halo effect’), or it may be due to more work-related reasons such as the manager’s belief that organizational citizenship behaviour plays a significant role in the organisation’s overall success. Regardless of the reason, the second effect is that a better performance rating is linked to gaining rewards (Morrison, 2012) – such as pay increments, bonuses, promotions or work-related benefits. Thirdly, because these employees have better performance ratings and receive greater rewards, when the company is downsizing e.g. during an economic recession, these employees will have a lower chance of being made redundant.
Organizational citizenship behaviour is linked to lower rates of employee turnover and absenteeism, but on the organisational level increased productivity, efficiency and customer satisfaction, as well as reduced costs, have also been observed (Rush, 2014).
Mackenzie (2012) has stated that organizational citizenship behaviour enhances productivity (helping new co-workers; helping colleagues meet deadlines); free up resources, attract and retain good employees through creating and maintaining a friendly, supportive working environment and a sense of belonging. Organizational citizenship behaviour creates social capital, enhances better communication and stronger networks, facilitates accurate information transfer and improves efficiency. It is based on this background that this study examined the effect of organizational citizenship behaviour on the performance of employees in selected money deposit banks in Enugu State with the headquarters of Zenith Bank Nig. Plc Okpara Avenue, Zenith Bank Nig. Plc Ebeano Housing Estate and Zenith Bank Nig. Plc Presidential Road Branch as a case study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Ideally, every organization would like to have employees who abide by the principles of organizational citizenship behaviour. This is because when employees assist one another in the work place, the redundant or inactive employees are usually stimulated to perform better. This is because no man is an island and the interactions of the employees usually bring harmony in the organization leading to improved employee performance.
Unfortunately, this situation has not been ideal in the banking industry. Some workers do not offer help to their colleagues when they have high targets that may not be easy to accomplish. This has led to many employees finding it difficult to work in the banking industry for a long period.
The effect or consequences of not adopting Organizational Citizenship Behaviour is that it could lead to lack of employees’ commitment as a result of lack of altruism in the organization. Another effect of not adopting organizational citizenship behaviour is that it could lead to a decline in the quality of service of the employees as a result of lack of courtesy. Furthermore increase in customers’ complaints is another effect of not adopting organizational citizenship behaviour in an organization as a result of lack of probity.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of the study is to examine the effect of organizational citizenship behaviour on the performance of employees. However, the specific objectives include to;
1.4 Research Questions
Based on the objectives of the study, the following research questions were raised.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
Based on the research questions, the following alternate hypotheses were formulated
iv. Probity has significant positive effect on complaints of the customers of the selected Zenith Bank Branches in Enugu State?
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research study is beneficial to the management of financial institutions because findings from this study will help them to understand the importance of organizational citizenship behaviour in the banking industry. The researcher (student) will benefit from this study because it is a pre-requisite for graduation. The university will benefit because the study increases its data bank. Finally, this study will serve as reference material for further research on this topic.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study covered the effect of organizational citizenship behaviour on the performance of money deposit banks in Nigeria. The organization covered is Zenith Bank Nigeria Plc. The branches covered were the headquarters of Zenith Bank Nig. Plc Okpara Avenue, Zenith Bank Nig. Plc Ebeano Housing Estate and Zenith Bank Nig. Plc Presidential Road Branch, while the time scope is between 2008 to 2019.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The researcher encountered some impediments in the course of carrying out this research work. Among them were uncooperative attitudes of the respondents in giving information and relevant materials and time constraints.
Uncooperative attitude of the respondents: The respondents of Zenith Bank Nig Plc were economical with information but through the help of one of their managers the researcher was able to get the required information from the respondents
Financial Constraints: The researcher spent some money on transportation going to the selected branches of Zenith Bank and also browsing through the internet and printing relevant materials needed for the study.
1.9 Operational Definition Terms
Organizational Citizenship Behaviour: This is an individual behaviour which is not rewarded by a formal reward system but when combined with the same behaviour in a group, results in employees’ effectiveness.
Selfless Service: Selfless service is defined as the desire to help or otherwise assist another individual, while not expecting a reward in compensation for that assistance.
Courtesy: Courtesy is defined as Behaviour which is polite and considerate towards other people.
Probity: Probity is defined as exhibiting no negative behaviour when something does not go as planned or when something is being perceived as annoying.
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