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Effect of Classroom management on students’ academic performance in Secondary Schools in Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State

Project topic for Education department.

CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study

The teacher is the hub when it comes to students learning and academic performance. He is saddled with many responsibilities to make sure that effective learning is achieved. Among these roles, classroom management is one of the most vital since the classroom is the meeting point of both the students and the teacher. Teachers who are managers in this case are expected to appropriately use the resources at their disposal to achieve effective teaching and learning goals. Failure in this area can result to poor learning conditions, indiscipline, poor performance of students, detour in educational standard of the nation, student’s nonchalant attitude towards learning, low motivation, among many others. Obviously, in a classroom where students are disorderly, disrespectful, undisciplined, unorganized, and no apparent rules to guide student’s behaviors, both the teacher and students suffer. The teacher struggles to communicate effectively and sometimes may become frustrated while the students learn much less than expected.

  • Conversely, a well managed classroom provides a conducive environment in which effective teaching and learning can take place. This conducive environment is achieved by everything the teacher does  including creating the setting, decorating the room, arranging the chairs, speaking to children and handling their responses, putting routines in place (and then executing, modifying, and reinstituting them), developing rules, and communicating those rules to the students.  Ozochi (2008) and Sieberer (2015) agree that all aspects of classroom management are the responsibility of the teacher since the teacher is considered as a manger in this sense.
  • Some of these managerial functions in the classroom cold include; enforcing discipline in the classroom, proper seating arrangements in the classroom setting, establishing a proper rapport between teacher and students, and to adopt appropriate teaching method.
  • First of all, a classroom without discipline will make no impact in the learning experience of the students. To instill discipline, the teacher must be capable of controlling the class, understand the needs of the students and be able to meet them accordingly. One of the challenges the teacher faces in Nigeria today especially in classroom management and control is that most classes are overcrowded, and students are placed in an unconducive learning environment  and are uncomfortable. This situation makes discipline in the classroom a difficult task for the teacher which in turn may affect students’ learning and academic performance.

Additionally, proper organization aids learning. A well arranged classroom could also be considered as part of that which affects students’ learning and academic performance. A neat and clean classroom, proper seating arrangement would psychologically create a sense of seriousness and motivation for both the teacher and the students. In a classroom where seating arrangement is unorganized and classroom environment is dirty students could pay less attention to the teacher and the teacher could find it difficult to control the class where disorder is the standard.

Also, a cordial relationship between the teacher and students seem to play a vital role in the achievement of effective learning and academic performance. Most teachers tend to frighten the students, creating fear and anxiety in the classroom. The use of reinforcements tends to motivate and retain students’ attention in the classroom. In contrast, a callous, cruel, unkind approach could affect students’ interest in the classroom and cause a lack of interest in the learning experience.  This is turn could affect students learning and academic performance of the students.

  • The management of classroom majorly lies on the skills and competency of the teacher. The skillful teacher determines appropriate methods to adopt to achieve effective learning among the students. This he could do by making choice of the best instructional strategy, when to use them, how to use them, and on which sets of students to use them to achieve the desired result. He is also involved in identification and articulation of proper sequencing and spacing of scheme content. Instead of relying totally on the scope and sequence provided by the constituency or textbooks, he considers the need of the students and contextualizes the lesson content. He also determines the contents that require emphasis and with the most suitable presentation method.
  • Therefore, one can agree that effective classroom management should include a proper management of the above mentioned areas. Perhaps, it is important to mention that according to Doolard, (2004) each of these areas are necessary but not independently sufficient to achieve effective teaching and learning in the classroom. This implies that no single role is by itself sufficient. So, removal of one from them will probably guarantee that students will perform poorly. Here in lies the major focus of this research which is to discover the effect of classroom management on students’ academic performance.
  •  Effective Classroom management is considered essential to determine teacher’s effectiveness and success. Survey also proves that teacher effectiveness can be measured by students’ performance and by rating. (Wiseman and Hunt, 2008; Evertason, Emmer, and Worsham, 2005). Hence, if teacher effectiveness can be measured by the way the classroom is managed; it is also possible that effective learning could be dependent on the proper management of the classroom.
  • Presently, it appears that the condition of most secondary schools is increasingly getting worse. An unannounced visit into the classroom during lesson periods would confirm that most if not all may lack discipline, and no form of motivation to spur the students towards achieving academic excellence. Most classrooms in the interior places are very unconducive, students/pupils learn in classrooms without seat, shelter and so on. Some others struggle with over crowdedness leaving the teacher handicapped in the area of classroom management. Also, school environments have become insecure with the height of insecurity in the country; the classrooms are no more secure to give that peace and tranquility needed to make learning effective; a visit to some public schools will reveal that most classrooms are unkept and dirty, with such conditions in the school environments today one can obviously see that achieving effective learning becomes a contemporary challenge and posses the reason for a research on the effects of these on students’ performance. Hence, the focus of this research is to identify the “Effect of Classroom management on students’ academic performance in Secondary Schools in Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State.

Statement of Problem

  •         There is a general lament on the poor performance of students recently both in internal and external examinations. The federal government expresses concern on students’ poor performances in WAEC, NECO, and JAMB examinations. For example, out a total of 16,633 candidates that sat for WAEC in 2012, only 251 of them were able to obtain five credits and above, including English and Mathematics. (Vanguard News, 2012).   Recently, in the year 2017, only 59.22 per cent of the participants in WASSCE had credits in 5 subjects and above including English and Mathematics. (MySchoolGist, 2017). Also, according to jamb result statistics 2018, only 465,025 candidates out 1.652,825 candidates scored 200 and above, that is a total of 27 per cent.
  •         Additionally, there are cries and expression of worries by students of various schools about poor classroom conditions and on how certain teachers conduct their lessons. Also, it appears that the performance of these students in these unfavorable conditions are consistently poor while they perform better in the courses they have a good rapport with the teacher. It is possible that most of these teachers do not understand the importance of classroom management on the academic performance of the students.
  •          Jari, (2014), opines that one of the major causes of mass exam failure in the country could be associated with unfavorable learning environment. The classroom which is part of the learning environment if improperly managed could result in the poor performance of students.
  • Parents are lamenting seriously due to poor performance of their children in schools. Employers are equally unsatisfied with half baked graduates from different institutions who apply for jobs in their organizations.
  • These among other factors maybe as a result of poor classroom management in various schools in Nigeria today.

          Purpose of the Study

  • The purpose of the study is to determine the “Effect of Classroom management on students’ academic performance in Secondary Schools in Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State. Additionally, this study would seek to also;
  • To determine the effects of class room discipline and motivation on students’ academic performance in Secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu state.
  • To determine the effect of classroom seating arrangement and physical conducive environment on the academic performance of students.
  • To determine the effects of teachers’ student relationship on the academic performance of students.
  • To determine the effect of appropriate teaching method on students’ academic performance.

          Significance of the Study

  •           This study proves to be helpful to teachers, parents, educational administrators, as well as all stake holders in the educational sector, and most especially to students.
  •           It will help teachers to understand the implications of teaching in an unorganized and poorly managed classroom conditions where students are not disciplined and adequately motivated. Hence, it will help them adjust and improve their managerial skills in order to achieve proper teaching and learning outcome. Also, it will help students in secondary school level to adopt appropriate behavior suitable for learning in the classroom knowing that their academic performances could be affected by it.  No doubt, parents will as well benefit as they are likely to spend less when their wards improve and perform better in school thereby getting the value of their money.
  •           The discoveries from the study will serve as resource for educational administrators. It will definitely aid in important decision making in the educational sector such as; specifying the number of students suitable for a class for easy management, the proper training of teachers in teacher training program on classroom management, and the quality of teachers to be employed in different secondary schools.

          Scope of the Study

  •           This research focuses on investigating the effect of classroom management on students’ performance in secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government of Enugu State.
  •           The research is limited to Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State because the researcher has a better knowledge of the area.

          Research Questions

  • What effects does classroom discipline and motivation have on students’ academic performance in secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government of Enugu State?
  • To what extent does classroom seating arrangement and physical conducive environment affect academic performance of the students?
  • To what extent does teacher students’ relationship affect academic performance of students?
  • What effect does appropriate teaching method have on students’ academic performance?

          Hypotheses

  •           The following Alternative hypotheses formulated were tested at 0.05 level of significance.
  • H0:     There is no significant difference between Classroom discipline and students learning and academic performance.
  • H1:     There is no significant difference between classroom seating arrangement, physical conducive environment and students’ academic performance.
  • H2:     There is no significant difference between teacher/students’ relationship and students learning and academic performance.
  • H3:     There is no significant difference between teaching method and students learning and academic performance. 

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