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The history of career management could be traced back to 1945 at the end of the Second World War. Then, there was an increase in demand for human capital. This created the concept of organizational career which meant a lifelong working pattern in only one organization. At that time also an unwritten psychological contract between the employee and employer was introduced (Callana and Greenhaus, 2014). Individuals do not, however, undertake their careers in a vacuum, as decisions about future trajectories need to be considered within the context of the broader world (Herr, 2012). Facilitating this decision making is the process of career management that has been defined as an ongoing problem-solving process in which information is gathered, awareness of oneself and the environment is increased, career goals are set, strategies are developed to attain those goals and feedback is obtained.
Career management, therefore, involves the analysis, planning and action that can be taken by an individual at any stage of his career and ideally throughout it, to actively increase the chance of doing well (Forsyth, 2015). Career management has two main dimensions such as organizational career management and personal career management. Career can be a property of individuals, however it is mostly managed by and planned in organizations (Baruch, 2013). Organizational career management is different from individual career management and it includes organized activities for employees’ career development and it differs from organization to organization. However, individual career management is the career management that is the responsibility of the individual (Dittmann, 2011). Based on the concept of individual career management, employees are the central actors in managing their own careers. Individual career management enhances individuals’ perception of control over their careers, which in turn leads to career satisfaction. Although organizational and individual career management are a bit different, they are interdependent and complementary. Sturges (2014) asserts that an individual depends on organizations for career guidance within the organization, where as organizations depends on the knowledge and employees available with them to achieve and carry out the organization’s strategy.
Be that as it may, there are many benefits inherent in career management. Lorgan (2014) posits that career management benefits not only the individual employee, but also the organization. When there is effective career management in an organization, the organization is assured of a supply of qualified, committed employees to replace the higher level employees. In addition, career management enables organizations to develop and place employees in positions compatible with their individual career interests, needs and goals. This promotes employee satisfaction and optimal use of employee abilities. Moreover, career management helps to retain and motivate employees through the career development process; employees are assisted in setting realistic goals and to develop the required skills and abilities for target positions (Hall and Lorgan, 2015).
Career management practices are key strategic considerations for all organizations regardless of size, market or profile. The development of the capital and capability of the organization’s managers has a fundamental impact on efficiency, effectiveness, morale and profitability of an organization (Robbins, 2013). High performing organizations increasingly pay close attention to the validity of their recruitment practices and are becoming equally vigilant about developing their employees’ career in order to ensure they achieve optimum performance both in the present and the future.
The importance of the health institutions in career management of their workers cannot be over emphasized. This is because Nigeria is continually ranked low in health care delivery by international organizations. In 2000 for instance, WHO Report on healthcare delivery ranked Nigeria 187 out of 191 countries, eight years later human development Report 2007/2008 ranked the country 158 out of 177. While the situation in the health sector persists, Nigeria continually loses her professionals to other countries. It was reported in 1986 that more than 1500 health professionals left Nigeria to other countries. In 2008, UNDP Report revealed that 21,000 medical personnel were practicing in the United States of America and United Kingdom, while there was gross shortage of these personnel in the Nigerian healthcare sector. The reason is not far fetched. These medical personnel do not see the Nigerian health institutions as being able to manage their career. Hence, this study intends to examine effect of career management on organizational performance.
Every organization hopes or dreams of managing the career of its employees. This is because career management provides opportunities for the employees to develop their career and support the organization to maintain the culture and talent within the organization. Furthermore, providing constructive career development opportunities to employees is one of the most cost-effective ways to retain top talent, boost employment engagement and productivity, strengthen the succession pipeline, generate knowledge transfer etc.
Unfortunately, many organizations in Nigeria have not been able to provide constructive career management in their organization. This is as a result of discrimination based on age, gender or race, lack of training, low need for achievement etc.
The inevitable consequences of not providing constructive career management in an organization could lead to decline in the quality of service of the organization as a result of lack of structured planning by the employees. Furthermore, it could lead to inefficiency of the organization as a result of lack of building self awareness. Moreover, it could lead to a weakening of the effectiveness of the organization as a result of work life imbalance and finally, it could lead to dissatisfaction as a result of lack of formal and informal training.
The broad objective of the study is to examine effect of career management on organizational performance. The specific objectives include to:
Based on the objectives of the study, the researcher sought to provide answers to the following questions.
In line with the research questions, the following alternate hypotheses were formulated:
Many people will benefit from this study, they include:
This research study covered the effect of career management on organizational performance. The organization covered is University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Ituku-Ozalla, while the time scope is between 2009-2019.
The researcher encountered some impediments in the course of carrying out this research work. Among them were uncooperative attitude of the respondents and lukewarm attitude in getting materials.
Uncooperative Attitude of the Respondents: The respondents of UNTH Ituku-Ozalla were economical with information, but when they confirmed that the research was for academic purpose they gave out useful information needed for the study.
Lukewarm Attitude in Getting Materials by the Researcher: The researcher initially had this lukewarm attitude in getting materials but eventually this was surmounted with the assistance of the university librarians and through the internet.
Career Management: Career management is a combination of structured planning and the active management choice of one’s own professional career.
Work-Life Balance: It is the state of equilibrium in which demands of personal life, professional life, and family life are equal.
Self-Awareness: Self-awareness means having a sharp realization of oneself personality, including oneself strengths and weaknesses, thoughts and beliefs, emotions and motivations.
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