Search past question, project, seminar or forum topic:


Project topic for Computer Science department.


 Pharmaceutical practices have evolved over time to become fully encompassed in all aspects of pharmacy itself. Such practices include: dispensing of drugs, consultation, drug regulation, and the sale of these drugs. The community pharmacies and hospital pharmacies have key roles to play in the pharmaceutical practices. For the community pharmacies in SubSaharan Africa, a strict approach to the sale and dispensation of drugs is not normally the case, due to the fact that laws governing pharmaceutical practices have not been fully enforced. On the part of the hospital pharmacies, there is a more controlled approach to the dispensing of drugs, as the prescriptions are readily available from the in-house doctors. There is a need for these practices to be fully enforced, and a management system introduced to the fray. With software such as the Online Pharmaceutical Management System, which provides a platform has been provided to help with drug regulation, as well as providing ease to all parties involved. The methodology used in the implementation of the software is the Incremental Model of System Development Life Cycle, which allows room for scalability as time goes on. Creating an Online Pharmaceutical Management System would help in pharmaceutical practices for all parties involved. It is eminent that the system provides a safe, secure and verified platform for all parties which help to bridge the communication gap and provide legitimate drugs. Therefore, if all recommendations are strictly adhered to, there will be strict monitoring and regulation of how drugs are circulated and a decrease in the spread of fake drugs.



1.1       Background of the Study

 The practice of pharmacy involves the general implementation of medical orders which entails the evaluation and the interpretation of the medical orders, the administration of drugs, dispensation of prescribed drugs from qualified medical practitioners, the review of prescribed drug regimen, and the correct storage of drugs (CPP, 2009). The American Pharmacists Association (APA) has described pharmacy as having a mission which is the responsibility of ensuring the use of medication in the right way and manner, and enjoying the services of drugs to ensure the achievement of optimized results in therapeutic applications (CPP, 2009). 

 In addition, the birth of modern pharmacy has brought with it some positive effects in the society; like  the increase in life expectancy globally from 45 years to 50 years, which some argue is as a result of the number of breakthroughs recorded in pharmacy over the last century. These breakthroughs such as: the discovery of new compounds in battling existing ailments and the invention of methods and devices to accurately dispense drugs have been welcomed with open arms by the society. (Federation Internationale Pharmaceutique, 2012).

 More so, the hospital pharmacy is usually located in hospitals (government-owned or private) and provides in-house pharmaceutical care to patients. Hospital pharmacists are those that function within a hospital pharmacy system and are tasked with the dispensing of prescriptions, the purchase of medicines, and the testing of these medicines (World Health Organization, 1994).  In the hospital pharmacy, access to medical records make it easy to influence the selection of drugs based on allergies or previous problems encountered. Subsequently, the power to control the process of going into the acquisition of drugs and other pharmaceutical devices, help in ensuring the supply of premium quality drugs. Furthermore, Hospital pharmacies which are owned by the government have little or no problems with financing projects due to backing from the government (El Tayeb, n.d.).

 Also, the community pharmacies may not have the permission to dispense certain drugs which may be due to the nature of such drugs and the prices of drugs are not as subsidized as those in hospital pharmacies (Postnikoff, n.d.).

 The proposed system aims to connect and serve as an intermediary between hospital pharmacies and patient, through a platform that allows the order of drugs with the click of a button, and simultaneously keeps track of what drugs have been ordered and in what quantity.

Financial management can be regarded as the process which ensures that financial resources are obtained economically and used efficiently and effectively in the accomplishment of the desired goals. This processes involves payment and analyzing public institutions financial conditions, general and special account, management of budgetary procedures, financial statements and reports, payroll/income tax calculation and payments, and managing cash flow.

Prior to the emergence and introduction of computer all these processes and activities were done manually.

Pharmacy management system is a management system that is designed to improve accuracy and to enhance safety and efficiency in the pharmaceutical store. It is a computer based system which helps the Pharmacist to improve sales and management of payment, cost, medical safety etc.

The system allows the user to enter a manufacturing and expiry date for a particular product or drug during opening stock and sales transaction. The system will also give report showing the list of products expiry after a specified date before the product eventually expires. It also involves manual entry upon arrival of new batches of drugs and upon drug movement out of the pharmacy for a certain period, e.g. every month, the pharmacist may want to generate report for the movement of drugs in and out of the pharmacy, getting information about the drugs e.g. expiry date, date purchased, number of drug type left, location of a drug in the pharmacy.

People can now buy medicines (or products sold as such) on the internet. Products available online include many that are prescription-only or otherwise restricted in the Enugu and other state. While in the past similar purchases might have been made via advertisements in magazines, mail order or in other unofficial ways, the internet brings a new dimension to the activity. Online purchase of pharmaceuticals can be linked to consumerisation and responsibilisation, the social phenomena and aspects of personalization discussed since it involves both the exercise of consumer choice and the need for the purchaser to take more responsibility to verify that medications offered are what they purport to be, and in some cases to make their own decisions without consulting health professionals.

Buying pharmaceuticals over the internet has become increasingly common. The use of medicines, by its very nature, touches upon personal matters such as illness, despair, craving and addiction. These powerful motivational factors, combined with the transnational and comparatively regulation-free nature of the internet, provide the conditions for creating a very lucrative market for the sale of pharmaceuticals (or products sold as such).

Selling pharmaceuticals online takes a number of different forms. In some cases, people buy medicines from suppliers that are licensed by national regulatory authorities and provide products that are themselves licensed for sale. There are systems for registering and inspecting online pharmacies in various countries, including Nigeria. In other cases, people buy pharmaceuticals (or what are sold as pharmaceuticals) that are restricted or illegal in their own country, without a prescription or not under the authority of a pharmacist. Selling restricted medicines (which include some over-the-counter products) in the Nigeria (and many other countries) without adhering to the applicable restrictions is illegal. However, people can easily purchase pharmaceutical products from websites and suppliers based in another country (the legality of such purchases depends on the substance bought). The suppliers may be operating legally or illegally in the country they are based in. The international nature of this trade contributes to making it difficult to assess, monitor and establish effective oversight measures.

The purchasing of pharmaceuticals online rather than face-to-face represents a significant shift in the way individuals interact with healthcare systems.

1.2       Statement of Problem

Pharmacy management has kept paper record in filing cabinets. Managing a very large pharmacy with records on papers will be tedious and difficult to keep track of inventories with regards to the drugs in the store, expiry date, the price, payment method, quantity of drugs available based on the categories and their functions.

The pharmacist has to order drugs to replenish the already diminishing stock. In addition, ordering of drugs is being carried out manually. Significant amount of time is allocated for writing the order as the pharmacist needs to go through the stock balance and make rough estimate of the amount to order based on Figures.

Patients are not supposed to be use the Drugs after they have expired. This project work will prompt the pharmacist about drugs that are close to expiry, preventing those drugs from being sold to Patients and also providing solution to the earlier stated problems.

The problems facing the payment system activities in Annunciation pharmaceutical center Enugu:

  1. The consistent prevalence of errors in calculations of Patients payment and carried out on financial reports which are traceable to human mistakes and shortcoming.
  2. Improper handling of financial statement, reports and records as a result of the problem of space for storage and retrieval purposes which leads to many files being misplaced.
  3. The interval or Patients time wasted and time consumed in analyzing and ascertaining the accuracy and approval of financial statements and accounts which in turn affects decision making and policy formulation.

The fore mentioned challenges in Annunciation pharmaceutical center Enugu prompted the researcher to embark on this study with the intention of proffering solutions to them.

1.3       Motivation

I was motivated to embark on this research with a view to designing and implementing of online payment for a pharmaceutical store that would enhance finance management in Annunciation pharmaceutical center Enugu

1.4       Aims and Objectives

The aim of this project is to develop an online payment for a pharmaceutical store for Annunciation pharmaceutical center Enugu. That will be able to achieve the following objectives: Ensuring effective policing by providing statistics of the drugs Patients pay for in store, Maintaining correct database by providing an option to update the drugs in stock, Improving the efficiency of the system by ensuring effective monitoring of services and activities of Patients, To provide optimal drug payment management by monitoring the drug movement in the pharmacy.

-To ensure that there exists a level of restricted access based on functionality and role.

-To ensure that the system is user friendly to the Patients.

-To be able to generate report within a specified period of time.

This will be achieved by designing and implementing a sustainable, manageable and flexible online payment.

The proposed online payment management system will ensure that financial records are properly stored thereby preventing them from getting lost since these records will be used in the future especially when making or planning for budget.

1.5       Purpose of the Study

The proposed online payment for pharmaceutical store system will remove repetitive, inefficient processes and unclear procedures and provides adequate information supporting financial decision making this the system will not only enable the institution to secure its resources against dubious minded managers but will also boost its growth,

Finally, the project work is also to serve as a reference or guide for future researches.

1.6   Significance of the study

The study was significant for it resulted to the development of online payment for pharmaceutical store. Study of Annunciation pharmaceutical center Enugu. The system, if put into use, will be beneficial to both the staff, apart from making work easy, eliminating errors and fraud, and providing timely results, it will provide the management with relevant and reliable information for decision makings in the institution and details of all the financial payment done in the institution.

1.7     Organization of the work

The research study has been arranged in the following order. Chapter one this chapter titled in introduction is organization as follows: Background of the study, statement of the problems, objectives of the study, organization of research, and Chapter two contains the review of the related literature and the technologies that enabled the project to be achieved. Chapter three deals with the research methodology and system analysis. Chapter four contains details of the system design, implementation and testing of the new system. Chapter five contains the summary, conclusion and recommendations.

1.8       Definition of Terms

Financial Control: This is defined as a processes of making which make sure that financial resources used in running an organization are obtained and efficiently utilized in the accomplishment of the set objectives or desired goals.

Internal Control: Internal control is defined as “Not only internal check and internal audit but the whole system of controls, financial and otherwise, established by the management in order to carry on the business of any the company in an orderly manner, to safeguard its assets and secure as far as possible the accuracy and reliability of its records.

Internal Check: This is defined as the allocation of authority and work in such a manner as to afford checks on the routine transactions of day-to-day work by means of the work of one person being proved independently by another, or the work of a person being complementary to that of another.

Budgeting Procedures: This refers to practices. Processes, institutional arrangements, documentation, norms and conventions governing budget preparation, approval, implementation, appraisal and review

For complete material - Click Here

Other topics you might be interested in: