1.1 Background of the Study
The ongoing dilemma of digital age is balancing convenience against security. Security is a system safeguards for protecting information technology against disasters, system failure, and an unauthorized access that can result in damage, loss or exposure. There are several reports of spammers, crawlers and hackers who break into people’s privacy to gain illegal access to their data.
This has posed greater challenges on people who use database, transact online, and internet users. Information is a valuable and costly asset that must be presented, controlled and planned just like other valuable assets within an organization. This work is designed to provide a security mechanism using a computerized data encryption system, readable data is altered into unreadable form to prevent unauthorized access.
Encryption is able to use powerful mathematical concept to create coded message that is virtually impossible to break. It is easy to encrypt a message on a simple personal computer so that the biggest computer in the world could not decipher without spending for more time on the problem that exists in the life span of the entire universe. We protect our computer and data against unauthorized disclosure, modification and also secure the system against virus and damage that might be caused by external force (Anjali, 2013).
During the ancient times, record keeping was done by means of primitive notches cut into wooden stick, on bone fragments or marks pressed in clay tables. They soon improved with the development of papyrus and calamus pen. The ancient record keeping was well in hand and reached its peak in Roman Republic and Roman Empire.
The census of 1890 turned out to be especially significant in the evolution of recorded machine process able form, for this census. Harman, H. (2001) has developed the punched card as a unit record and invented machinery for processing these records some 60 years later, the first electronic computer was constructed and their application in record keeping system ushered in the era of computerization.
From this humble beginning of antiquity, record keeping has grown into gigantic dimensions with the advent of computer network, conferencing through computers and so on.
These have increased the vulnerability of data both in stored form during communication to wire tapping; saving and accessibility. Another reason is that complexity of interaction of individual with their governments. With these new dimensions, dangers surfaced private and confidential records could easily become public property. This endangered the lives of people concerned
A solution had to be found to his problem of insecurity of data. A common technique for providing data security to sensitive information is encryption. Encryption entails the application of certain reversible transformation; to the messages that are to be transmitted to render them unintelligent to all but those receivers who are in possession of the correct “key” used in the encryption. (Ezedin, 2007).
The original message is decrypted by applying the reverse transformation specified by the key to the received encrypted message.
Suppose two people A and B wish to communicate or exchange message on an issue they do not want to make public on what they want to keep between them. A number of questions or problems arise.These are:
i. How can they make sure that no other person receives this message?
ii. How can A (B) make sure that B (A) receive all of A’s call or B’s message?
iii. How can they make sure that they receive only these messages and no other?
It can be seen that these present some real problem. As an illustration let us consider a business deal between two businessmen, A and B, geographically residing in two different areas and who communicate with each other in some way, example by E-mail, mail, telephone, telex etc. another businessman Y, business vital Y, wishing to know what the deal is all about, may be able to tap into the communication line thus leading to problem.As stated above
i. May rise in a situation whereby the vital Y, may decided to intercept the message from A to B, say, causing a delay in the cause of the business deal. This message might be easily detected if the recipient of the message does not get it at the said time, unlike problem.
ii. Whereby the message interception may be distorted or some message not there before may be added to it before being sent to the recipient. In a situation like this, it is quite difficult to detect.
However, detection of an abnormal situation does not imply that it can be determined who caused it. Thus to ensure orderly communication of confidential message it is necessary that the authenticity of message be proved conclusively at some later point in time to any other party. Having established the fact that there is a multitude of problems with the notion of communication on despite its deception simplicity, and by extensions having decided that it is desirable to resolve this problem,
Cryptography is the science of secret communication. Its fundamental objective is to enable communications over an insecure channel in such a way that a potential adversary cannot understand what is being conveyed. The global proliferation of cyber espionage has led one particular component of cryptography encryption to become critical in the effort to safeguard sensitive data and intellectual property.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Security is currently a widespread and growing concern that affects all areas of the society, in the same manner data and information security has become one of the most pressing challenges confronting all kinds of present day organizations owing to their rapid adoption of information technology (IT) in the entirety of their activities. This development has made data and information to a larger extend vulnerable to unauthorized users, spammers, crawlers and hackers who break into people’s and organization’s privacy. Also the currently reported cases of data theft, modification, and unauthorized access to the database of OHHA Microfinance Bank despite the common password system they are using, has spared me into embarking on this work to come up with a better security system which if well implemented will serve as an aggressive remedy to their data security bleaches.
The recent cases of unauthorized data access, manipulation and data loss currently recorded in various organizations especially in OHHA Microfinance Bank and the quest to enlighten the masses on the need to properly secure information against unwanted users have propelled or motivated me into embarking on this work.
1.4 Aims and Objectives
The aims and objectives of this work are as follows:
• To Develop a simple software system that will restrict unauthorized access to data files on computer systems and networks via encryption
• To suggest security techniques which can create conducive working atmosphere for organizations that are having their data threatened.
• Enhance key sharing mechanism that allows users to share and have access to files security.
1.5 Purpose of the Study
This project work is carried out to create a maximum computerized data file security system primarily for OHHA microfinance Bank using symmetric encryption techniques. It also proves the usefulness of computers in the case study. It will also enlighten the student in the course of studies relating to these fields of life.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study work ensures that data (information) will be secured against unwanted bodies; by developing a better data file security system for the company (OHHA MICRO FINANCE BANK ENUGU).
This study will also enable us to investigate a secured cryptosystem. With well implementation and usage of this system, the cases of hacking and other related offences would be reduced to the barest minimum.
1.7 Organization of the Work
This project contains five chapters and they are as follows:-
Chapter One: - This chapter contains the introductions of the project, stating the problems and the reason why the project is being written, the aims and objectives of the project, the motivation for doing the project, the significance of the study, organization and the definition of terms of the project.
Chapter Two: This chapter is all about the literature review of the project which also consists highlights the description and analysis of the existing system, the objectives of the existing system, problem encountered in the system were also highlighted, and the limitations are also stated.
Chapter Three: This chapter talks about the research methodology and design used in the study.
Chapter Four: This chapter entails the implementation, and development of the system which comprises input/output specification and design, the file design, the system requirement, explanation of the program design, the program flowchart, pseudo code, the source program and the test of run were also explained
Chapter Five: Finally, talks about the conclusion and recommendation of the project.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Data: Data is the raw fact or observation, typically about physical entity or business transactions. Technically, data is the raw form of information stored as columns and rows in our databases, network servers and personal computers.
Data Security: This is the practice of keeping data protected from corruption and unauthorized access. The focus behind data security is to ensure privacy while protecting personal or corporate data.
Information: This refers to data that has been processed in such a way to be meaningful to the person who receives it.
Cryptography: This is the science of scrambling data.
Encryption: Encryption is the conversion of data into a form that cannot be easily understood by an unauthorized people.
Decryption: Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form, so it can be understood.
Cipher text: This is the encrypted data; it is also called a cipher.
Decipher text: This is the decrypted data; it is also called a plain text.
DES: Data Encryption Standard
AES: Advanced Encryption Standard
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