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Design And Implementation Of An Online Voting System for INEC

Project topic for Computer Science department


Voting is a very important process in the Nigerian political system.  It is one of the means and most effective method of ensuring a legitimate government through popular participation.  To enthrone sound democracy and stability in the political system of the Nigeria, a system of rig-free voting has to be put in place. The system would among others discourage double voting, forgery or hoarding of electoral materials, massive transfer of ballot papers, destruction of ballot boxes, inflation of election figures and unnecessary delay in pronouncement of election result.  This could be achieved by an on-line voting system to remove the difficult administrative tasks of the electoral body which regulated the conduct of election in Nigeria.  This basically forms the goal set to achieve in this study. MySQL, JavaScript, Xampp application suite, and Mozilla browser were the software tools used to develop the voting system. The system produced the expected results as it eliminated most of the short-comings of the off-line voting system.



1.1   Background of the Study

The advancement made in technology over the past few years is astounding.  The computer alone has progressed at a remarkable pace, and updates are continually occurring.  Along with the progress of the computer, comes the transformation of the virtual world.  The Internet is a fairly recent concept that has profoundly affected our daily lives.  As with anything new, the Internet possesses various mysteries.  Research is being conducted to determine the possibilities of an on-line voting.  Internet voting opens the door to all sorts of possibilities for our state voting future.

Voting is simply the means of selecting or choosing leaders, it does not apply only to Local government, States and Federal government of Nigeria, but also in different institutions and social organization.  The conduct of elections in a democratic society is very important not only because through it a change of government is effected but also because voting is the main form of political participation for most people.  For democracy to be sound, it should be anchored on election free from fraud.

Over the years, the voting operation in Nigeria has been put under a manual system of operation which mostly results to inaccuracy and ineffective election.  It is gradually being realized that much faster, accurate, effective and efficient system is needed.  Here, on-line is to be instituted to handle voting acuities.

The on-line voting system ensures that each intended voter is checked whether he/she is registered or not, if he/she is not registered, the system refuses him/her voting.  Also, it checks whether he/she has voted for that particular election.  This on-line voting system prevents a situation where a particular candidate seizes the voters’ cards, and uses them to vote for himself.  Hence the rigging associated with the manual voting systems has been completely handled.  The system also takes care of result calculation of each candidate in a particular election and the percentage scored in that election.  This eliminates rigging associated with the calculation and counting of votes.

A means of showing the various outputs is also adopted by the system. The output can either be displayed on the screen or a hard copy of it can be produced depending on the choice of the user.  This prevents intentional and unintentional typographical errors in showing the results of the election process.

With an on-line voting, votes can be cast only once, it will also afford people who are sick and unable to go to polling stations to cast their votes.  It should be noted however that on-line voting will not replace the existing ballot forms, but is offered as a supplementary way of the ballot system.

1.2    Statement of the Problem

The inefficiency of voting process in Nigeria resulted in lots of problem. These problems have continued to obstruct the peace of democracy in Nigeria because the choice of a capable candidate is not encouraged by the current voting system.

 These problems include:

High rigging during election process.

A single voter casting his/her vote multiple times.

Inefficient and inaccurate counting of votes by officers concerned.

Long queues observed at polling stations.

(5)Unregistered voters casting their votes.

(6) Loss of votes due to either wrong voting or the case of any accident occurring during transportation of the statement of result and other electoral materials to the collection centres.

1.3     Motivation

The ability to conduct free and fair election in Nigeria with the   aid of information technology led to this study.

 1.4    Aims  and Objectives

The main aim of this project work is the design and implementation of an on-line voting system. The specific objectives are:

To design an online voting system.

To implement an online voting system.

1.5     Significance of the Study

The on-line voting system would lead to a free and fair election thereby making the voters vote to count.

1.6     Organization of the Work

This research work contains five distinct chapters with sections.

  • Chapter One: Background of the study, Statement of the problem, motivation, aims and objectives, significance of the study, organization of work and definition of terms.
  • Chapter Two: Literature Review.
  • Chapter Three: Research Methodology.
  • Chapter Four: Implementation and Evaluation.
  • Chapter Five: Discussion and Conclusion.

1.7      Definition of Terms

Ballot Papers:       Material with which voters use to cast their votes.

Ballot Box:           A container in which voters drop their votes

Ballot:                  A vote recorded in an election.

Collection Centre: A designated location where results are collected.

Computer:            An electronic device that stores data, processes data and produces an output as information.

Democracy:          This is the government of the people for the people and by the people.

Election:               The act of choosing by voting one of the candidates for a position.

INEC:                   Independent National Electoral Commission

Home Page:          The front door to a website.  Normally contains links to other web sites or web pages.

HTML:                 Hyper Text Mark-up Language.

Poll:                     The process of voting at an election.

Poll Station:         A centre or venue where voters cast their votes.

Rigging:               To manipulate election result in favour of another person.

Voter’s Card:        This is a card given to a voter to ascertain that he has the right to vote.

Voters’ Register:   This is a register containing the data of eligible voters completed by the election officials.

Web Site:              It is a location on the web that publishes information.

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