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1.1 Background of the Study
Accurately identifying a person is the most critical process in biometrics-based security applications, and issued for recognizing and determining an individual identity based on his or her physical or behavioral characteristics including finger-prints and face.
Biometrics is automated method of recognizing a person based on physiological or behavioral attributes. Such as face, fingerprint, hand geometry, iris, retina, signature, and voice. Biometric technologies are fetching the establishment of an extensive array of extremely safe recognition and personal authentication solutions. As the level of security breaches and transaction fraud increases, the need for highly secured identification and personal verification technologies is becoming apparent.
Biometric-based solutions are proficient to offer for confidential financial transactions and personal data privacy. The need for biometrics can be found at all caves of government: federal, state and local, in the military, and in commercial applications. Enterprisewide network security infrastructures, government IDs, secure electronic banking, investing and other financial transactions, retail sales, law enforcement, and health and social services are already benefiting from these technologies.
Biometric-based authentication applications include workstation, network, and domain access, single sign-on, application logon, data protection, remote access to resources, transaction security and Web security. Trust in these electronic transactions is essential to the healthy growth of the global economy. Utilized alone or integrated with other technologies such as smart cards, encryption keys and digital signatures, biometrics are set to pervade nearly all aspects of the economy and our daily lives. Utilizing biometrics for personal authentication is becoming convenient and considerably more accurate than current methods (such as the utilization of passwords or PINs). This is because biometrics links the event to a particular individual (a password or token may be used by someone other than the authorized user), is convenient (nothing to carry or remember), accurate (it provides for positive authentication), can provide an audit trail and is becoming socially acceptable and inexpensive.
The security field uses three different types of authentication:
Something you know a password, PIN, or piece of personal information (such as your mother’s maiden name)
Something you have a card key, smart card, or token (like a Secure ID card)
Something you are a biometric.
Of these, a biometric is the most secure and convenient authentication tool. It can’t be borrowed, stolen, or forgotten, and forging one is practically impossible.
Biometric payment is controversial. Traditionally, fingerprints have been associated with law enforcement. Critics of biometric payment fear that fingerprints could be made available to government agencies or law enforcement officials. Biometric payment service providers are quick to point out that they don't keep the customer's actual fingerprint in their databases. They keep an encrypted number derived from the finger's point-to-point measurements. (It is that number which is used to verify a customer's identity, not the actual fingerprint.) In the final analysis, a biometric payment system like any system that accesses sensitive information -- is only as secure as the associated databases and transactions.
A biometric system is a recognition system that establishes the authenticity of a specific physiological or behavioral characteristic of a user. The biometric system is divided into two stages: the enrollment module and the identification module. The enrollment module is accountable for training the system to identify a specific person by scanning the person’s physiognomy to create a digital representation. This digital representation becomes a template to be compared. The identification module is accountable for recognizing a given person by capturing the characteristics of the person to be identified and converting this into the same digital format as the template. The identification module is divided into two stages, the identification stage and the verification stage. The identification stage prompts the system to ask, “Who is X?” and attempts to compare “X” to every template in the database. In contrast, the verification stage forces the system to ensure that a user, who claims he is “X,” answers and solves, “Is this X?”
Biometric technology has evolved in recent years, and fingerprint recognition (FR) is one of the most popular techniques because of its cost effectiveness, compact equipment and easy implementation. Compared to other methods, FR does not need large amounts of memory to store the extracted template and is not computationally expensive; which is a big advantage in data mining. However, identity theft is close to impossible for FR and there is no chance of re-construction of the original sample from the extracted template.
Biometric Identification Systems are widely used for unique identification of humans mainly for verification and identification. Biometrics is used as a form of identity access management and access control. So, use of biometrics in computer based staff attendance management system is a secure approach.
The exception to the antipathy towards biometrics is fingerprint recognition (hereafter referred to as FR). FR is widely used today in places such as airports, university system and the legal system, and it is built in to devices such as laptops, etc. More work has been found within the literature, which aims to quantify the best methods and algorithms of FR than any other biometric system; however, there is still not a categorical standard algorithm for FR systems. Despite this, identification or authentication through FR still has three main advantages (Maltoni, Maio . (2009), and (Newman 2010).
Low cost of deployment (cost effective).
Simple to implement and use.
Users must be physically available at the point of identification or verification.
The level of impersonation as well as the ghost worker syndrome in recent times is enormous, in both the private and the public sector, Akinduyite, Adetunmbi, Olabode, and Ibidunmoye (2013). Therefore, there is need for a new system which will wipe out all this enumerated issues. The human body has the privilege of having features that are unique and exclusive to each individual. This exclusiveness and unique characteristic has led to the field of biometrics and its application in ensuring security in various fields. Biometrics has gained popularity and has proved itself to be a reliable mode of ensuring privacy, maintaining security and identifying individuals. Today, the technology is being spotlighted as the authentication method because of the need for reliable security (Arulogun , 2013).
A system insusceptible to impersonation, that provide dependable and efficient means of taking staff attendance record with the use of biometrics captures to provide perpetrators with the uniqueness of biometrics will help organization/institution keep good and accurate record of their staff punctuality.
Fingerprints are considered to be the best and fastest method for biometric identification. They are secure to use, unique for every person and do not change in one’s lifetime. Besides, implementation of fingerprint recognition system is cheap, easy to manipulate and the result accurate.
Fingerprint recognition has been widely used in both forensic and civilian applications. Compared with other biometrics features, fingerprint-based biometrics is the most proven technique and has the largest market shares. Not only it is faster than other techniques but also the energy consumption by such systems is less.
The advantage of these systems is that they prevent employees from clocking in for one another. Previous methods included a time-clock, a sign-in sheet and swiping an ID card. These systems create more of an honor system for employees to follow, reducing employee time theft.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The public sector is grappling with challenges of mode of paying salaries to public sector staff. The fear of fraud has been seen as the biggest impediment to financial handling and payments which has often led to an organization being de-frauded. As Lawrence & Wells (2004) define it, fraud is a means which human ingenuity can devise, and which are resorted to by one individual to get an advantage over another by false suggestions or suppression of the truth. Fraud manifests its ways in many forms for example it includes tricks, cunning or dissembling, and any unfair way which another is cheated.
Ghost workers: the existing system gives dubious people the opportunity to defraud the government through the inclusion of nonexistence staff in the pay roll.
I was motivated to embark on this research with a view to designing and implementing a biometric system that would eliminate the ghost workers or staff syndrome being witnessed during the payment of salary in NOUN, Enugu.
1.4 Aims and Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is design/develop a multi-modal biometric authentication using fingerprints and faces to Authenticate staff identity before they get payment. Based system on problems mentioned in section 1.2, the objectives of the study include:
1.5 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this research is to design and implement a staff biometric system that will resolve the problems of ghost workers syndrome being encountered at NOUN. The importance of this system can not be over emphasized in addition to other benefits, loss of money to fraudsters droning the payment of workers salaries will be checkmated.
1.5 Significance of the Study
The outcome of this study will be designing and implementing of biometric payment system for NOUN Enugu. This software, when put in use, will take care of all the short- comings of the manual staff payment system. Thus the software will restore the management confidence in the payment system. Moreso, the software will help save a lot of monies for NOUN which hitherto, are being lost due to the fraudulent activity in Payment of the staff.
The study will also serve as a guide to other researchers who may want to conduct further research on the subject matter.
1.6 Organization of Work
The research report has been arranged in the following order. Chapter one: this chapter titled introduction is organized as follows: background of the study, statement of the problems, objectives of the study, organization of research, and definition of terms. Chapter two: This chapter, titled literature review, is organized as follows: Biometric authentication, Types of Biometric, Biometric Security, Payroll fraud, Advantages of biometrics. Chapter three centers on design consideration, analysis of existing system, and design architecture. Chapter four titled implementation and evaluation, centers on the system hardware requirements, system software requirements, data source, implementation procedure, system algorithm, sample implementation input snapshot, sample implementation output snapshot, evaluation of result, and discussion of results, In chapter, five the researcher presented the summary of results, conclusion, recommendation and suggestion for further research.
Enrollment: The initial process of collecting biometric data from a user and then storing it in a template for later comparison.
Identification: The process by which the biometric system identifies a person by performing a one-to-many search against the entire enrolled population.
Verification: Authentication process by which the biometric system matches as captured biometric against the person's stored template.
False-Acceptance Rate (FAR): The percentage of incorrectly matched to a valid user's biometric.
False-Rejection Rate (FRR): The percentage of inconsistently rejected valid users
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