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Data storage security on cloud computing

Project topic for Computer Science department.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study
Cloud computing is the most demanded advanced technology throughout the world. As cloud computing is an Internet based computer technology. Some of the major firms like Amazon, Microsoft and Google have implemented the “CLOUD” and have been using it to speed up their business. Cloud computing has given a new dimension to the complete outsourcing arena (SAAS, PAAS and IAAS) and they provide ever cheaper powerful processor with these computing architecture. The simplest thing that a computer does is to store in the available space and retrieve information whenever requested by the authenticated user.

We can store any kind of data that we use in our day to day life from simple photographs, favorite songs, or even save movies to huge bulk amounts of data which is confidential. The above mentioned service is the most basic service offered by cloud computing. Cloud is a pool of computing service on large scale. The increasing network bandwidth and reliable yet flexible network connections make it even possible that users can now subscribe high quality services from data and software that reside solely on remote data centers.

The Cloud helps enterprises to have a dynamically scalable abstracted computing infrastructure that is available on-demand and on a pay-per-use basis. This model not only saves the IT teams from investing heavily on infrastructure, but also shields them from the intricacies involved in infrastructure setup and management. Presently, apart from providing the on-demand IT infrastructure, cloud service providers typically provide interfaces for other related IT management services. Cloud based flexible and on demand infrastructure enables a travel enterprise to offer mobility and social media channels without incurring any fixed cost.

Using a cloud infrastructure, a travel enterprise can start in a small way and grow into these evolving markets with a lower risk and financial strain.
From the perspective of data security, which has always been an important aspect of quality of service, Cloud Computing inevitably poses new challenging security threats for number of reasons. At first, traditional cryptographic primitives for the purpose of data security protection can not be directly adopted due to the users’ loss control of data under Cloud Computing. Therefore, we require verification of data storage in the cloud.

Considering various kinds of data for each user stored in the cloud and the demand of long term continuous assurance of their data safety, the problem of verifying accuracy of data storage in the cloud becomes even more challenging. Secondly, Cloud Computing is not just a third party data warehouse. The stored data in cloud may be frequently revised by the users, including operations like insertion, deletion, modification, affixing, reordering, etc. To ensure storage correctness under dynamic data revise is hence of paramount importance. However, this dynamic feature also makes traditional integrity insurance techniques futile and entails new solutions.

The deployment of Cloud Computing is powered by data centers running in a simultaneous, cooperated and distributed manner. Individual user’s data is redundantly stored in multiple physical locations to further reduce the data integrity threats. Ensuring storage correctness without having users possessing data, cannot address all the security threats in cloud data storage, since they are all focusing on single server scenario and most of them do not consider dynamic data operations. This is conquered using distributed protocols for ensuring storage correctness across multiple servers or peers. In this paper, we propose an effective and flexible scheme with explicit dynamic data support to ensure the correctness of users’ data in the cloud.

We rely on erasure- correcting code in the file distribution preparation to provide redundancies and guarantee the data dependability. This construction drastically reduces the communication and storage overhead as compared to the traditional replication-based file distribution techniques. By utilizing this token with distributed verification of erasure-coded data, our scheme achieves the storage correctness insurance as well as data error localization.

Error Localization is the data corruption that has been detected during the storage correctness verification, our scheme can almost guarantee the simultaneous localization of data errors, i.e., the identification of the misbehaving server(s). This is among first few ones in this field to consider distributed data storage in Cloud Computing. The main contribution can be recapitulated as the following aspects:When compared to its predecessors they only provide binary results about the data storage status across the distributed servers, the protocol used in our work provides point of data error (i.e. Error Localization).
We provide secure and efficient dynamic operations on data blocks.

The security and performance analysis shows the proposed scheme is highly efficient and resilient against Byzantine failure, malicious data modification attack, and even server colluding attacks.

1.2 Problem Statement

The different network entities can be identified as follows:
• User: users, who have data to be stored in the cloud and rely on the cloud for data computation, consist of both individual consumers and organizations.
• Cloud Service Provider (CSP): a CSP, who has signif- icant resources and expertise in building and managing distributed cloud storage servers, owns and operates live Cloud Computing systems.
• Third Party Auditor (TPA): an optional TPA, who has expertise and capabilities that users may not have, is trusted to assess and expose risk of cloud storage services on behalf of the users upon request.

1.3 Motivation

The recent cases of unauthorized data access, manipulation and data loss currently recorded in various organizations. The quest to enlighten the masses on the need to properly secure information against unwanted users have propelled or motivated me into embarking on this work.

1.4 Aims and Objectives

The aims and objectives of this work are as follows:
• To Develop a simple software system that will restrict unauthorized access to data files on computer systems and networks via encryption
• To suggest security techniques which can create conducive working atmosphere for organizations that are having their data threatened.
• Enhance key sharing mechanism that allows users to share and have access to files security.

1.5 Purpose of the Study

This project work is carried out to create a maximum computerized data file security system using symmetric encryption techniques and data storage or Cloud Computing. It also proves the usefulness of computers in the case study. It will also enlighten the student in the course of studies relating to these fields of life.

1.6 Significance of the Study

To ensure the security and dependability for cloud data storage under the aforementioned adversary model, we aim to design efficient mechanisms for dynamic data verification and operation and achieve the following goals:

(1) Storage correctness: to ensure users that their data are indeed stored appropriately and kept intact all the time in the cloud.

(2) Fast localization of data error: to effectively locate the malfunctioning server when data corruption has been detected.

(3) Dynamic data support: to maintain the same level of storage correctness assurance even if users modify, delete or append their data files in the cloud.

(4) Dependability: to enhance data availability against Byzantine failures, malicious data modification and server colluding attacks, i.e. minimizing the effect brought by data errors or server failures.

(5) Lightweight: to enable users to perform storage correctness checks with minimum overhead.

1.7 Organization of the Work

This project contains five chapters and they are as follows:- Chapter One: - This chapter contains the introductions of the project, stating the problems and the reason why the project is being written, the aims and objectives of the project, the motivation for doing the project, the significance of the study, organization and the definition of terms of the project. Chapter Two: This chapter is all about the literature review of the project which also consists highlights the description
Chapter Three: This chapter talks about the research methodology and design used in the study.
Chapter Four: This chapter entails the implementation, and development of the system which comprises input/output specification and design, the file design, the system requirement,Chapter Five: Finally, talks about the conclusion and recommendation of the project.

1.8 Definition of Terms

Data: Data is the raw fact or observation, typically about physical entity or business transactions. Technically, data is the raw form of information stored as columns and rows in our databases, network servers and personal computers.

Data Security: This is the practice of keeping data protected from corruption and unauthorized access. The focus behind data security is to ensure privacy while protecting personal or corporate data.

Information: This refers to data that has been processed in such a way to be meaningful to the person who receives it.

Cryptography: This is the science of scrambling data.

Encryption: Encryption is the conversion of data into a form that cannot be easily understood by an unauthorized people.

Decryption: Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form, so it can be understood.

Cipher text: This is the encrypted data; it is also called a cipher.

Decipher text: This is the decrypted data; it is also called a plain text.

DES: Data Encryption Standard

AES: Advanced Encryption Standard


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