Search past question, project, seminar or forum topic:



AWARENESS AND PRACTICE OF CERVICAL CANCER SCREENJNG AMONG FEMALE WORKERS IN UNTH COMMUNITY ENUGU STATE

Project topic for Nursing Science department.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study                

Cervical cancer is the most common gynecological cancer and a leading cause of cancer death in women in Nigeria and the most common cancers affecting women the world over with an estimated 529,000 new cases in 2008(Anorlu, 2008). Worldwide, cervical cancer is the fourth most frequent cancer in women with an estimated 530 000 new cases in 2012 representing 7.5% of all female cancer deaths. Of the estimated more than 270 000 deaths from cervical cancer every year, more than 85% of these occur in less developed regions (Globocan, 2012). Cervical cancer ranks as the 2nd leading cause of female cancer in Nigeria

 An estimated of 570,000 new cases in 2018 representing 6.6% of all female cancers. Approximately 90% of deaths from cervical cancer occurred in low- and middle-income countries. The high mortality rate from cervical cancer globally could be reduced through a comprehensive approach that includes prevention, early diagnosis, effective screening and treatment programmes. There are currently vaccines that protect against common cancer-causing types of human papilloma virus and can significantly reduce the risk of cervical cancer. (WHO, 2018). About 14,943 new cervical cancer cases are diagnosed annually in Nigeria (estimates for 2018).

In developed countries, programmes are in places which enable women to get screened, making most pre-cancerous lesions identifiable at stages when they can easily be treated. Early treatment prevents up to 80% of cervical cancers in these countries.

Cervical cancer contributes to 20 to 25% of all cancers among women in sub-Saharan Africa, about twice the percentage in women worldwide. In spite of the fact that cervical cancer is preventable, the incidence is expected to increase to almost double the current rate by 2025 (Globocan, 2012). Cervical cancer continues to cause the deaths of almost 270,000 women worldwide each year. About 87% of these occurred in developing countries, particularly in the rural areas. Its incidence in the Sub-Saharan African countries ranges from 30 to 40 per 100,000women (WHO, 2006). In Nigeria, cervical cancer kills one woman every hour and over 9000 women every year. More than three-fourths of cervical cancer patients are diagnosed at advanced stages leading to poor prospects of long-term survival and cure. This is due to the non-existence of a national screening programme, lack of infrastructure, poorly trained health staff and huge financial cost. It evidently constitutes a huge public health burden as the attendant loss of lives is needless due to its preventable nature (Brown, Wilson, Boothe and Harris, 2011). Screening is currently viewed as the most effective approach for cervical cancer control and it is associated with reduced incidence and mortality from the disease. The primary causative agent is the human papilloma virus (HPV) with the high-risk genotypes (HR-HPV) being responsible for the development of invasive cancer. Over 70% of all cases of cervical cancer are directly due to infection with HPV-16 and 18 strains thus making it the only human cancer whose necessary cause is known (Brown et al, 2011).This knowledge forms part of the basis for designing successful preventive strategies. Risk factors for HPV infection and subsequent cervical cancer include early age of first sexual exposure, multiple sexual partners, smoking and immunosuppression. Although the mean age of diagnosis is 50 years, women as young as 17 years can also develop the disease with the highest risk group being 25-49 years (Reis, Beji and Kilic2011). Conventionally, Pap smear, combined with treatment of cervical pre-cancerous lesions and early-stage cancer, has been successful in preventing up to 80% of invasive cervical cancer cases in the developed world. In developing countries, however, high rates of cervical cancer mortality still persist due to lack of effective screening programs and low uptake of Pap smear testing. Newer technologies such as the HPV/DNA test (QIAGEN, Gaithersburg, MD, USA), cervicovaginal self-sampling, and HPV vaccination have the potential to increase screening and reduce cervical cancer in developing countries (Brown et al 2011). Cervical cancer is the 2nd most common female cancer in women aged 15 to 44 years in Nigeria In 2017, the World Health Organisation (WHO) reported that the number of Nigerian women suffering from cervical cancer annually totalled 14,089 making it the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Sadly, this statistics is not only high in Nigeria. Up to 530, 000 cases and 275,000 deaths are recorded in developing nations every year. Put together, this is 80% of the cervical cases in the world. This is quite unfortunate knowing that this type of cancer can be avoided before it becomes full blown.

1.2       Statement of Problem

Worldwide, cervical cancer is the fourth most frequent cancer in women with an estimated 530 000 new cases in 2012 representing 7.5% of all female cancer deaths. Of the estimated more than 270 000 deaths from cervical cancer every year, more than 85% of these occur in less developed regions.

In developed countries, programmes are in places which enable women to get screened, making most pre-cancerous lesions identifiable at stages when they can easily be treated. Early treatment prevents up to 80% of cervical cancers in these countries. The developing countries accounted for 370,000 out of 466,000 cases of CC that were estimated to have occurred in the world in the year 2000(Globocan, 2012). This had increased to 493,000 cases worldwide in 2002, estimated 530 000 new cases in 2012 of which more than 80% of these cases occurred in the developing countries and the incidence is expected to increase to almost double the current rate by 2025. Cervical Cancer is an important public health problem among adult women in developing countries in South and Central America, Sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia. In these regions, it is either the most common or second most common cancer among women. About 274,000 or more deaths occur annually due to Cervical Cancer globally, and more than 80% of these deaths occur in developing countries (Anorlu, 2008) Moreover, resource-constraint settings, such as we have in Sub-Saharan Africa, are currently witnessing a growing number of women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This may further compound the problem because they have an increased risk of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection, the causal agent of Cervical Cancer. Cervical Cancer screening awareness is generally low worldwide but worse in developing countries despite the increased prevalence of the disease in these countries. 14,943 new cervical cancer cases are diagnosed annually in Nigeria (estimates for 2018). Cervical cancer ranks as the 2nd leading cause of female cancer in Nigeria Cervical cancer is the 2nd most common female cancer in women aged 15 to 44 years in Nigeria In 2017, the World Health Organisation (WHO) reported that the number of Nigerian women suffering from cervical cancer annually totalled 14,089 making it the second leading cause of cancer deaths. Sadly, this statistics is not only high in Nigeria. Up to 530, 000 cases and 275,000 deaths are recorded in developing nations every year. Put together, this is 80% of the cervical cases in the world. According to Brown et al (2011), the high mortality rate from cervical cancer globally (52%) could be reduced by effective screening and treatment programmes.

1.3       Purpose of the Study

This study is therefore aimed at ascertaining the level of awareness and practice of cervical cancer screening among female workers in UNTH community.

1.4       Objectives of the Study

  • Ascertain the level of awareness of Cervical Cancer screening among the

           participants,

  • Assess the practice of Cervical Cancer screening among them 
  • Determine factors that hinder practice of cervical cancer screening

1.5       Research Questions

  • What is the workers level of awareness of cervical cancer screening?
  • Do they practice cervical cancer screening?
  • What are the factors that hinder the practice of cervical cancer screening among female workers in UNTH community?

1.6       Hypothesis

Hi. There will be no significant association between level of education and practice of cervical cancer screening by female workers in UNTH community.

1.7       Significance of the Study

Cervical Cancer screening awareness is generally low worldwide but worse in developing countries despite the increased prevalence of the disease in these countries. People who are aware of Cervical Cancer are more likely to have had the screening done in the past and the sources of information, most of the time, are the health care providers. Unfortunately, those who had the cancer may have had no knowledge of the risk factors and the possible prevention options. Some became aware of the disease for the first time when they were diagnosed of Cervical Cancer. Findings from this study therefore will go along way into improving the level of awareness of Cervical Cancer and its screening coverage through adequate assessment, health education, creating awareness via media and community health workers. It will also improve accessibility to cervical cancer screening centers among female workers in UNTH community beyond and also proffer solutions to barriers to Cervical Cancer screening. It will also contribute to the existing body of knowledge.

1.8       Scope of the Study

This study was delimited to female workers in UNTH community irrespective of age and educational qualification.

1.9       Operational Definition of Terms

Level of Awareness: Extent of knowledge of cervical cancer screening methods, when and how it is done and preventive measures by the participants.

Practice: To perform an activity routinely or in a habitual manner with the aim of achieving a positive result.

Cancer screening: The process of checking or filtering abnormal/pre-abnormal cells from the body early so as to initiate treatment.

Cancer: A situation in which the cells of a tissue undergo abnormal, uncontrolled and often rapid growth which may sometimes spreads to other organs causing disease.  

Cervix: The lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina.


For complete material - Click Here

Other topics you might be interested in: