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Project topic for Mass Communication department.



Background of the Study

Advertising can be defined as any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of persons, institutions, ideas goods or services by an identified sponsor using appropriate medium or media of communication.

According to Morality, Mitchell & Wells (2009:55) Advertising is a paid form of persuasive communication that uses interactive media to research about the audience in order to connect an identified sponsor with buyers a target audience and provide information about products goods services and ideas.

Winston Fletcher quoted in Ozoh (1998:1) defines advertising as the dissemination of sales messages through purchased time and space.

Bovee & Arens (1992:7) define advertising as the non personal communication of information usually paid for and usually persuasive in nature about products (goods and services) or ideas by identified sponsors through various media.

  Advertising practitioners/ advertisers hold the view that when celebrating models are used for promotion of goods or services, the loyalty of the target audience is won.

The use of models in advertising stems from the marketing concept and also emanates from fact that advertisers and advertising agencies realized the power influence and importance of associating notable personalities or even good looking people with product identity in order to achieve the following reasons.

To attract attention of esteemed buyers

Improve the sales of the product to associating it with such models

To get buyers to be favorably disposed to the product

To propagate the brand name

To improve on the brand image

To add more value to advertising and communication industry

World wide use of models in advertising has remained a remarkable instrument of increasing business activities because the appeals drawn will be very useful in advertising and will attract much concern where attitude change is involved. As a result, some developments have been witnessed in the advertising industry within the last twenty years in the areas of supportive services such as radio and television production, research and outdoor services. These are activities and ventures where modeling services are required

Today, advertising industry use model in several ways either on television or advertisement on the page and covers of various magazines, newspapers, journals, calendars, bill boards and posters.

Most of the advertising firms operate through modeling agencies and majority of the models are represented by these agencies with their contract being established by their representatives. But no rules exist that a model must be represented by an agent, as some companies have been incorporated to provide and train models for modeling.

The purpose of a modeling agency is to avail advertisers/ advertising agencies the services of trained and experienced models required for advertising of goods and services, since modeling seems to play important roles in advertising industry, especially in accelerating appeals for goods and services as well as improving of goods and services.

Problem Statement

In Nigeria today, the use of models in advertising has become one of the sophisticated strategies employed in advertising operations. Watching television, one sees and listens to an innumerable number of advertisements of products and services like Devon Soap, Lux soap, Coca cola, elephant blue detergent e.t.c.  Models, mostly celebrities, advertised each of these products; just as Nadia Buari was used in advertisement of Devon soap in the year  2011 up till date, which boosted a lot of sales of Devon soap has not ever done. It is important to remember that modeling has now reached a highly competitive stage, and huge efforts and finance is being invested yearly by the industry. Whether these efforts are justifiable or not depends on the usefulness and ethical implication of modeling. 

            The problems, however,

  1. There is a paucity of studies on the ethical dimensions of modeling in advertisement.
  2. models have not being very useful in advertisement
  3. modeling has been neglected as a profession
  4. Modeling has no influence on buyers.

Objective of the Study

The objectives of this study are as follows:

To ascertain the ethical dimensions of modeling in advertisement

To examine models usefulness in advertisement.

To find out whether people accept modeling advertising as a profession.

To find out whether models have any influence on prospective buyers

1.4       Research Question

            1.         Does the use of models been considered ethical or


            2.         Are models useful in advertisement?

3.         Does people residing in Enugu North Local Government accept modeling advertising as a profession?     

4.         How does a human model affect the consumer perception of the particular product?

1.5       Formulation of Hypotheses

            Hypotheses are tentative supposition put forward to determine facts and give solution to problems. Based on problem definition and the objectives of the study previously stated, to the following hypotheses are to be tested or investigated to find out whether models are useful in the advertising industry or not

1.         H0:       Use of models in advertisement is seen as


H1:       Use of models in advertisement is seen as


            2.         H0:       Models are not useful in advertisement

                        H2:       models are useful in advertisement

            3.         H0:       modeling is not accepted as a             profession

H3:       Modeling being accepted as a profession

4.         H0:       Models do not influence prospective buyers

                        on the purchase of products.

H4:       Models influence prospective buyers on the purchase of products.

1.6       Significance of the Study

The significance of this study depends largely on the set of objective of the research. Based on this, this study will help to bring out the influence and effect of models in the prospective buyers and their influence could be anything ranging from negative to positive or neutral. It will also aid in deciding whether models enhance the credibility of the advertisement, and the product or service advertised or worse still, whether it distracts from the credibility of the advert.

1.7       Limitation of Study  

            A research effort of this nature is usually fraught with some problems and limitations. The framework of this study would have been based on models used in various advertising media but its scope will be limited to advertisement on television, radio, newspaper, magazine, bill board and posters in Enugu.

            Because of the limited coverage, the researcher finds it difficult to get more respondents and also the researcher finds it difficult to get the accurate data on the models in advertisement 

1.8       Scope of the Study

            This study covers areas in Enugu North Local Government Area which includes Ogui, Independence Layout, New Layout, Coal Camp, Opara Avenue, Abakpa, Emene, trans- Ekulu.  It will have a good representation of the consumers that will be surveyed to find out how useful and, how modeling is in advertisement of Devon soap.

1.9       Definition of Terms

Advertisement:          It is the creation of awareness for people to know about Devon soap.

Model:            A person called upon or employed to demonstrate Devon soap to possible buyers in order to compel action. The model must operate within the known standards, rules, regulations, or procedures of the profession.

Ethical: It describes ethic which is a system of moral principles or rule that govern or influence a person’s behaviour about Devon soap.

Celebrities: They are stars or models used in advertising Devon soap; it could be television stars, actors, actresses, sports figures or entertainers whose appearance in advertisement of Devon soap sustain the interest of his/her audience on the product.

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