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Project topic for Mass Communication department.



1.1 Background of the study.

The print media has dominated journalism for many centuries before the advent of electronic media in the 20th century. The newspaper industry recorded success in the face of difficult.

Quite often the press conducts investigations and takes necessary stand on issues of national importance. The newspaper keeps faith with the people and has distinguished itself as a medium of advocacy. The history of newspaper some years ago has been full of struggles to win and retain full freedom to perform its basic functions. Okon (2000) noted that in recent years, the newspaper industry have been faced with a new kind of challenge. This challenge is the arrival of the new information and communication technology (ICT) which has made several papers to struggle for, Commenting on the challenges the print media face as a result of the coming of information communication technology (ICT) Ochaji note that:

“When the electronic media was introduced they had an edge over newspaper because they were presenting the same condensed reports as the letter but at a faster pace and in a form that closely matched reality Ochaji (2005, p.16).

Television specially, presented moving pictures and took pictures of scene almost simultaneously with the event itself. Feature writing became the print news media lifeline to present and give relevant issues to the public.

The effects of the electronic media on newspaper, perhaps is best explained in Marshall McLuhan’s 1980 revelation, quoted in Okuna (2003, p.77) that --- we live in a unique revolutionary communications age, a balance print in history where statement stimulated millions of people to think about the unseen effects of the electronic media.

Since the prediction of McLuhan in the 80s there has been an unequalled surge in the introduction of new and better information tools which are increasingly complementing and replacing older traditional tools of mass information. Gwaza C.A (2004). New media delivery systems, new information processing, storage and retrieval systems have become the vague. Based on this, Curran (2000, p.9) argues that:

More realistic assessment of limits of audience power points, by implication to the significance of   media organizations and need for a critical study of the challenges Curran (2000, p.9).

Other scholars, professionals, consultants and researchers have indicated interest and have brainstormed on the directions of media effects in order to ascertain the correct direction of the power of the media in the society, their motivation had always been based on logic that most human communications are produced with the intent of causing some effects such as shaping the minds steering the behaviors of others. These scholars are Ayinkola (2001); Okoye (2002, p.18) provides a good description of the condition of the newspaper due to impact or effect generated from the electronic media. He says: In Nigeria, the golden age of newspaper is past and gone.

The whole place is littered with the graves of numerous newspapers which came up with high hopes but died like “Ogbanje” before they attained maturity. These deaths can be attributed to so many factors such as staff competition, technological advancement which has brought about the electronic media of television which appeals to sight and sound, they have poisoned the level of newspapers patronage in Benue State. Gwaza (2004, p. 57).

The contention of Okoye (2002, p.18) no doubt add to the varying perception   that people have on the media. The fact that electronic media is now reviewing newspaper has generated criticism as most publishers and public communicators feel that the patronage of such papers will be limited.

1.2 Statement of the Problem.

  According to Baram (2009) since the arrival of the electronic media, the newspaper media has been faced with the huge surviving challenges. The fact that the electronic media is fast packed with the information and communication has given the newspaper a run for its life in the media market place. Apart from this very concern, the electronic media easily win over audience from the newspaper. According to Burton (2002, p, 92) the current practice of newspaper review programs on most television stations appears to have posed a new kind of problem for the newspaper. Is the review of newspapers capable of discouraging or encouraging people from reading the daily newspapers? What is the perception of the public towards the review of newspapers on television? This study therefore seeks to investigate the audience perception of newspaper reviews on television and its effect on the patronage of newspapers.

  • Objectives of the Study

The broad objectives of the study are to examine audience perception of newspaper review on Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) station in Makurdi. The specific objectives of the study therefore are;

  • To ascertain the extent of readers awareness of newspapers review programme on NTA.
  • To find out what the audience do with newspaper after the review of its content on television through the NTA review program.
  • To establish whether newspaper review on NTA is capable of limiting newspaper patronage and readership.
  • To assess readers perception of newspaper review on NTA

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions are a clear guide to this study;

  • To what extent newspaper readers are been aware of newspaper review programs on Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) Makurdi.
  • What did audience do with newspaper after the review of its content on television through the NTA review program?
  • Is newspaper review on NTA capable of limiting newspaper patronage and readership?

     iv.     To assess readers perception of newspaper review on NTA.

1.5 Significance of the Study.

       The study is significant for many reasons. It will assist in explaining the audience perception of readers on newspapers review on NTA. It will help the public, academics, communication experts to better their understanding of the implications for newspaper reviews by the NTA station in the state.

The study will further establish the objective role newspapers review does in the life of the audience members of the society. The research shall serve as a reference material for those that will be interested in carrying out similar study and those in practice of the profession whether or not to adapt to the issues raised in the work. The study will also spur further research in the area.

1.6 Scope of the Study

        The scope of the study is restricted or delimited to audience perception based on newspaper review programs on NTA and its effects on the sales of newspaper in Benue State.

  • Definition of Terms.

Audience: Are the target segment of the population for whom broadcast or print message are meant or directed to. Adesina, A. (2010). The audience also known as the receiver is the person who attends to the message which the sender transmits through a channel. The audience or receiver as he or she is fondly called may consist of one or more persons. A group of people who listen or view the newspaper review program on NTA: Makurdi are the audience of the program. A group of people in a particular occupation may constitute an audience of a program on television. We have occupational audience other categories which may be used to delineate audience include geography location, age, economic status, social status as well as educational status. Ugande and Tine (2013, p. 11). Viewership is the choice of a programme, event or medium to watch. The choice is based on a number of factors peculiar to the audience. It is seen as a greater interest in, or desire for something than something else.

The type or number of people who watch a particular television programme or station.

Perception:According to Baram (2009, p.66) is the process by which an individual select, Organize, and interprets information inputs to create meaningful picture of the word. Thus, its application, here is the understanding and interpretation of newspaper review on Nigerian Television Authority by the audience. Okuna (2004, p.117). 

Newspapers review. Represent the actual highlight reading of the contents of newspaper and magazines on television for the audience. It is the process by which the presenter read the main headlines of the papers. Brown (2008, p.78). Nigerian Television Authority Makurdi, always carry out its newspaper review program in the morning after network news. The presenters read the major stories in the national daily newspapers and urge the interested readers to go and buy their hardcopies.  

Television: Is an audio-visual component used as a medium of communication categorized under the broadcast media. Malhen and Mesthene (2009, p. 2). Television started in Nigeria in 1959. According to Malhen (2009, p. 34), It was a regional affair, and later a national instrument for mass communication, mass mobilization and national development. Ciboh (2007:170) narrated the golden age of television to be the period of 1959-1960; the formal Western Region was the first to send out the first signal in Nigeria and the whole Africa on October 31, 1959.      

Newspaper:  According to McLuhan (2001, p. 41), Newspaper here represent any paper containing public news intelligence or occurrence or any remarks observations comments printed periodically or in part or numbers. A newspaper is a publication containing news, information, and advertising. Newspaper can be published daily or weekly and cover local and information news stories. A newspaper is usually divided into different segments: news, opinions, advertisements, announcements, sports news, cartoons and television listings. The newspaper is the oldest of the mass media anywhere in the world. Ciboh (2016, p.2).

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