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1.1 BACKGROUNG TO THE STUDY
Environmental public health has become a prominent, but complex multi-dimensional issue on the public policy agenda of states and international organizations. The issue of the environment today perceived not simply as a narrow ecological problem of how to ensure a symbiotic and congruent inter-face between man and environment. It is more than that. Its core psychological, political, developmental, sociological and scientific ramifications, all are anchored to the new concept of sustainable development.
The concept of sustainable development emanated from the report titled “Our Common Future” prepared by the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). This report, also known as the Brund land report, recognized that many development activities in many countries were leaving growing numbers of people poor and vulnerable, while at the same time degrading their environment. The report then concluded that a new path for development would be needed to sustaine human progress not just in few places for a few years but globally in the future. This conclusion led the report to focus onmpopulation, energy, industry, human settlement and quality of life as contained in Agenda 21 (Onwuka, 1997).
Throughout history the environment and natural resources have play and a defined role in social, political and economic transformations. They have also been a major contention in characterizing Africa as a continent in crisis (Opera 2008; Opera and Gerhard 2012). The environment has been at the receiving end and over burdened with aftermath of the excesses of humans in their struggle for survival. Environment is a complex weave of physical, chemical and biological factors that interact with each other and impact upon all living things and their surroundings. It is a life supporting system for human existence and survival as well as provide required support for socio-economic progress (UNDP, 2001). Environment is the source of global economy that must be protected and managed sustainably; all effort directed at managing and administering the environment is to ensure the continued existence of the biological diversity entities on the earth of which humans are the prime species and without it, which human cannot exist (Aluko, 2001). Nigeria is a country with productive ecosystems including mangroves, rainforest, savanna as well as wetland.
In Nigeria, the metropolis’ tremendous potential for a sustainable, environment is yet to be fulfilled probably due to many constraints posed by macroeconomic management. Obviously, damage to the quality of ecosystem and reduction in it aesthetic beauty is detrimental not only to human health but also to other resource embedded in it.
Indeed, indiscriminate waste dumping has become a common feature of most African towns and cities in the recent past. Inhabitants in the urban areas tend to dump waste as if it has no implication on their community health and social welfare. In Jos metropolis, population surge has given rise to heavy built up environment where houses are most closely built than before, which has then resulted in the dumping of waste on the street. Jos metropolis, the study area has continued to witness an increase in the disposal of household waste carelessly on the road sides, drains, banks of the streams and in public places (Buckle and Smith, 2000).
Inadequate management of waste besides posing severe environmental health risk on human populations is also capable of inflicting permanent damage on the ecological system. Considering the magnitude of waste released daily into the environment and considering the facts that there appears to be no serious organized programme for the efficient management and disposal of these waste , in spite of their environmental effect on human health, there is need for understanding dynamics that are essential for the explanation of trends and emerging disease epidemics on the human environment, in order to ensure evolution of effective government and public policy toward control. To help individual and groups to acquire an awareness of the total environment and its problem is one of the six cardinal objectives of environmental education. People need to be aware of the implication of their actions on the environment, most especially as it affect their health. Thousands of lives are lost every year to environmental related diseases such as cholera, diarrhea, malaria fever, typhoid and so on. Majority of people live in filthy, cockroaches, rat and mosquito-infected environmental the air, which is an unavoidable source of life, has been polluted with chemical pathogen and offensive odour. Seepage from waste dumps often pollutes the underground and surface water. The environment is “sick” and the sickness the effect of human activities.
There has been concern about the quality of the environment in which human beings live. Many international conferences, workshops, and seminars have been held on the impact of degraded environment on human beings and the need to promote environmental qualities. It’s a known fact that human health is contingent among other things, on the quality of air he breathes, the food he eats, the water he drinks and the environment in which he lives, Indeed Nigeria is not left out among the comity of nations that are showing great concern for environmental matters.
Successive governments at federal and state levels demonstrate their concern for human health and the environment through enactment of laws and promulgation of decrees that compel people to clean and respect the environment. In not too distant past sanitary inspectors or public health inspectors promoted environmental sanitation among Nigerians. In 1972, there was an introduction of monthly environmental sanitation to ensure clean environment. And people were compelled to clean their environment at least once in a month. The exercise became part of Nigerians as it was routinely observed (Berkowitz, 1984).
Thus the government rose to this challenge by setting up a board to handle waste/sanitation matters. However the problem of waste management still persists. One therefore asks whether the organization handling waste is competent to undertake the tasks effectively. Waste management includes all activities that seek to minimize the health, environmental and aesthetic impacts of solid waste (Buckle and Smith, 2000).
Beside, one needs to understand whether the personnel involve in this business understand the principles and technique of waste management. This is because, most times, while the personnel of the organization are carrying the waste to its destination a large proportion of this waste drops along the road thereby constituting nuisance to the city. More so, the truck uses by these organizations are usually open carriage trucks which are not supposed to be used for disposing waste. The personnel also appear to be at risk, as they do not follow the ethics of waste disposal. All these therefore make it important to appraise the board responsible for the disposing waste in the city (Berkowitz, 1972).
Based on these developments it is necessary and important for one to be curious about how people in general are tackling the issue of waste management and disposal in Jos metropolis. Wastes from these population growths and the technological development gradually constitute problems to the state. This is because the need to control and manage these wastes became an issue that both the people at the helm of government and the citizens need to tackle seriously.
The citizens appear to be making the matter worse. Some of them still defecate or dump waste on the roadside, some even dump it on nearby streams, while others pack waste in cellophane bags and drop it at the middle of the highways. It is now a common phenomenon to see waste being dumped along the major roads in the state, an attitude turning the state to a waste depot. This is an eye sore as these ugly mountain of wastes around the metropolis may likely be one of the first things that confront people visiting the City.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Ethically, the beauty of any environment lies in its good sanitary condition. This is so because, when an environment is clean the lives of its citizenry are not threatened by illnesses and diseases. Proper waste disposal management involves the dumping of waste (solid, liquid or gaseous) from our homes, industries and public outfit, for example hotels, hospitals and schools at a specific place or in government provided container and the control it also involves the removal of waste from place where they can cause hazards to a place where they are less hazardous to public. Jos metropolis presents a ghastly picture, the neglect of filled waste bins in recent time has its effects on the inhabitant. Many areas around the homes are littered with domestic waste sewage waste, garbage and other wastes from commercial activities and industries. Commercial and industrial operations are characterized by the generation of large volume of waste in the form of solid, liquid and gases. Some of these wastes are toxic with negative impact on our environment, (land, water and air).
To ensure clean and safe environment Plateau state government established Plateau Environment Protection and Sanitation Agency (PEPSA) to monitor environmental quality and to ensure waste -free environment. However, despite the government effort at making the environment clean in Plateau State, people seem to careless about their environment. Despite the provision of waste receptacles by the government many people still prefer dumping at the place they consider convenient to them. People seem not to be aware of the interrelatedness of dirty environment and disease. Victims of environment related disease like malaria fever; dysentery and others seem to be on the increase.
Indiscriminate waste dump affects quality of water, and air of which the people seem not to be aware. Public awareness programmes that enlighten the public on the health implication of indiscriminate waste dump are almost non-existent mass media seem not to be doing enough to create awareness about implication of indiscriminate waste dump. It was against this background that the researcher embarked on this research to examine people attitude to effective disposal and management of waste in Jos metropolis.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This study was design to address the following questions:
1.4 AIM/OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aim of this research study is to examine people attitude to effective disposal of waste in Jos metropolis. To achieve this aim the following objective are pursuit:
To identify various ways the environmentalist/policy makers could help in changing human behavior and response to environmental option that will promote waste management.
H0: There is no significant difference in the attitudes of people toward waste disposal in Jos metropolis
Hi: There is a significant difference in the attitudes of people toward waste disposal in Jos metropolis
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The collection and disposal of waste is improper and inefficient in Jos metropolis. Linter and waste often accumulated along road and public places, creating breeding grounds for mosquitoes, flies, cockroaches and rodents responsible for the spread of many diseases. The vehicles used are open trucks, which expose their putrefying load for all to smell as they moved through the city. Drains and rivers are choked with waste and there is open burning of waste everywhere.
Governments at all levels are involved in waste disposal local, state and federal governments each control a specific part of the process. Waste disposal is generally seen as a municipal responsibility because of the landfill and recycling component.
The information will go a long way in helping teachers, most especially Adult educators, environment educators and health educators will also benefit from the study in such a way that it would help them to emphasize the link between good health and clean environmental attitude to school, public, media house and others who are charged with the responsibility of awareness creation for Jos metropolis becomes dependent on a long term strategy for all citizens. It will help to reshape people attitude toward effective disposal of waste in Jos and its environs.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The studies intend to examine people attitude to effective disposal of waste and to emphasize the link between good health and clean environment. The study was limited in the sense that the researcher based judgment on the responses of subjects through questionnaires. Some of these respondents were empathetic towards filling the questionnaire. It was difficult to get market women and some businessmen who lacks formal education as well as desired to respond to the questionnaire as they mostly considered it a waste of time and a diversion from their businesses. The strata of the society were not proportionately represented. Hence, enlightened young people were more involved in the result of the study. Instrument motility was another limitation of this study. One thousand two hundred (1200) questionnaires were distributed but only one thousand and ninety seven (1097) were retrieved: out of this number, ninety seven (97) copies were either not well completed or properly filled. Inadequacy of sample is another limitation. It is assumed that a study of this magnitude should have been between 2000 to 5000 sample size.
The geographical scope of the study is Jos metropolis the city capital of Plateau State. The studies cover some known dirty areas and dumping side which include the Jos North and South local government area. It has way, Apata community, Jenta Adumu, Gangare,Tafabalewa, waste of mind, Old Bukuru Park, Bouchi Road, Bukuru, Gyel, D.B Zank Junction, Angwan-Rukuba, Tudun-Wada, Zarma-magan, Dading-Kowa, farin Gada, Alihu Makama way, and Bukuru Express way as it major road.
1.8 DEFINITIONS OF OPERATIONAL TERMS
WASTE: defined as items we don’t have use for and needs to be discarded. It can be defined as materials that may have no economic value or any object or materials that the owner no longer considers of sufficient value to retain.
ATTITUDES: The concept of attitudes is central to explaining our thoughts, feelings, and actions with regards to other people, situations and ideas. Attitude implies feelings that are either positive or negative. Attitude has been regarded as the most distinctive and indispensable concept in social psychology (Berkowitz, 1972)
WASTE: is the leftover, used product whether solid or liquid having no economic value or demand and which must be disposed or thrown away (Oxford dictionary).
WASTE MANAGEMENT: refers to the act to maintain acceptable environmental quality, sound public health and creation of aesthetic value (ESM322, 2008).
ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION: is a set of actions geared towards improving the quality of the environment and reducing the amount of diseases (Environmental dictionary)
INCINERATOR: Is a large furnace usually with a long chimney, where waste is burnt (Oxford dictionary).
POLLUTION: dirty materials that destroy the purity of the atmosphere (web search).
PERSONAL HYGIENE: in a hygiene behavior or habits such as washing of hands after using the toilet, washing of hands before food preparation help avoid nuisance and hazards (GALE 2009).
RESPONSIBLE ENVIRONMENTAL BEHAVIOUR (REB): as actions taken by individuals or a group of individuals to do what is right to protect the environment (Cottrell and Graefe, 1997).
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