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ASSESSMENT OF THE CAUSES AND EFFECT OF WATER POLLUTION IN ENUGU EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA ENUGU STATE


Project topic for Environmental Studies department

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

  •     Background of the study

The Environment is a precious gift of God to all creatures whether living or non-living. The natural resource of the earth including air, water, land, flora and fauna must be safeguarded for the benefit of the present and future generations through careful planning and management. Water is a vital liquid of life, as there can be no, (2004), water is very important useful to the existence of man, and for undertaking of various activities which may be commercial, industrial, domestic, agricultural, etc. water is the most common liquid without colour, taste or small, which falls from the sky as rain, and from rivers, lakes, ponds and seas and is drank by people and animals (Longman dictionary, 2003). Thus, pure water is an animating fluid while polluted water is a real curse for human beings. This is so because water is an essential component of the human body and comprises of about 2/3 of the body weight.

Man during the course of his civilization has settled in places where plenty of water was available. However the increase of population and exploitation of natural resources for his own benefit man has created problems of petition hazardous not only to aquatic life but also to his own life. While western countries have become very sensitive to the problem of water pollution, Nigeria has continued to render water more pollution day by day and the situation is deteriorating progressively (Tripathi and pandey, 2009)

          Water is referred to as polluted when it is impaired or altered by a chemical anthropogenic contaminant and either does not support a human use and could be disastrous for some purposes like drinking, or undergoes a marked shift in its ability to support its constituent communities such as fish (Amokaye, 2012) water pollution is a major global problem and the evaluation and revision of water resources policy at all levels is imperative.

          The water resources on the earth are depleting fast. Out of several components of environment, water, being traditionally the most convenient receptacle for the society in Nigeria, has been polluted to the threshold. The water resources are limited but the assault in the form of pollutants is an ongoing process. About 70 percent of all available water in Nigeria is feared polluted (Mehdi, 2007). Without pollution controls, water would become grossly polluted and unusable for a wide range of human and non human needs (Susan wolf et al, 2002) the problem of water resources is not less urgent than that of other types of pollution (Zaytseva, 2007). “It is not a problem of an individual or nation but is a problem which ‘no nation, no continent, no hemisphere, no race, no system can handle alone’. It is a problem of entire human race which requires joint action” (Chetan, 1991).  An adequate supply of safe water is one of the major pre-requisites for a healthy one of the major pre-requisites for a healthy life. The importance of clean water and link between contaminated or putrid water and illness was recognized in the distant past, even though the actual case of disease was not properly understood until the latter half the 19th century (Ray, 2001). During recent years there has been one increasing awareness of, and concern about, water pollution all over the world, and new approaches towards achieving sustainable exploitation of water resources have been developed internationally. (Richard and lvanido, 1997).

          Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State is fast developing and is a host to many industries, hotels, agricultural activities and other capable of contributing to water pollution. At recent, wastes such as caustic soda, cyanide, ammonia, fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides used in agriculture and other industrial activities in the area contaminate and pollute water resources in the area, thereby making the water unsafe for human consumption (Enugu State Ministry of Environment Report, 2008). Hence this study is intended to examine the causes this study is intended to examine the causes and effect of water pollution in Enugu East L.G.A of Enugu State.

  •     Statement of the problem

Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies that occur when pollutants are indirectly or directly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove the harmful sediment (Muyibi et al., 2008). According to René (2006), the increasing contamination of fresh water systems with thousands of industrial and environmental problems facing humanity worldwide.

Enugu East L.G.A of Enugu East has not been left out in the global problem of water pollution. With growing industrialization and agricultural wastes discharged into water bodies in the area has continued to posse a serious threat to both aquatic and human life in the area due to the contamination or pollution of the water bodies.

There have been reported cases of cholera and typhoid outbreak over the radio in the area and other water borne diseases as a result of polluted water. Aside outbreaks of water-borne diseases, death of lives tocks have equally been recorded in the area due to unsafe drinking water. Also, the cost of treating water to make it safe for human consumption is high in the area, making it difficult for dwellers to enjoy clean and quality water.

The aforementioned cases informed the decision to carry out this study on causes and effects of water pollution in Enugu East L.G.A of Enugu State.

  • Aim and objectives of the study

The aim of the study was to examine the causes and effects of water pollution in Enugu East Local Government Area of Enugu State.

The specific objectives of the study include:

  •  To evaluate the effects of water pollution on the health of the people of Enugu East L.G.A
  •  To determine the human activities that cause water pollution in the L.G.A
  •  To determine the adverse effects of water pollution on the livelihood and economic activities of the people living in the L.G.A
  •  To evaluate possible solutions the deepening water pollution problems in the area.
  •     Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

 Does water the health of people living in Enugu East L.G.A?

  • Can Human Activities cause pollution of water bodies in the studied area
  • Does water pollution has effect on the livelihood and Economic Activities of the people within the area.
  • Area there possible solutions to the deepening problems of water pollution in the L.G.A.  
  •     Research Hypothesis

Hypothesis one:

Hi: water pollution has effect on the health of people living within Enugu L.G.A Ho: water pollution has no effect on the health of people living within Enugu East L.G.A Hypothesis two:

Hi: Human activities cannot cause pollution of water bodies in the L.G.A

Hypothesis three:

Hi: water pollution has adverse effects on the livelihood and economic activities of people living within the Local Government Area.

Hypothesis Four:

Hi: There are possible solutions to the deepening problems of water pollution in the L.G.A

Ho: There are possible solutions to the deepening problems of water pollution in the L.G.A.

  • Significance of the study

The Justification for the study is to establish a strong fact that water pollution is inimical to life and should be therefore is significant because:

  •   The study would help in enlightening the people and the general public on the health implications of discharging water pollutants into water bodies that meet their daily needs.
  •   It would also help to throw light on human activities in the L.G.A that contribute to water pollution and control measures necessary to avoid polluting water bodies in the area.
  •    The study would also make the people to be aware of huge economic losses associated with polluting water bodies in the area.
  •   The data obtained from the study w3ould from part of baseline data on the causes of water pollution to the health and livelihood of people I Enugu State and Nigeria In general.
  •    Data obtained from the study would also help Government, Environmental stakeholders and other policy makers in Nigeria in formulating and executing policies aimed at safeguarding water bodies in the country.
  • Operational Definition of Terms
  • Causes: This is defined as a person or thing that makes something to happen.
  • Effect: This could be defined as a change that somebody/something result (Oxford Dictionary 6th  Edition)
  • Water: Water could be defined as a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances
  • Pollution: Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change or harm to living things.
  • Water Pollution: This is the contamination of water resources through the introduction of harmful substances which are harmful to living things.
  • Portable Water: This is water that is safe and acceptable for drinking, meaning that it is safe and free from disease organisms, excessive organic and inorganic organism.
  • Water borne diseases: These are diseases that have their causative agents based inside water, e.g typhoid, malaria, fever, cholera, etc.
  • Hard Water: This is water that does not lather so easily with soap.

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